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双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)

发布者: 顾绍骅 | 发布时间: 2017-2-25 11:47| 查看数: 385| 评论数: 2|帖子模式

双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)一



"Enjoy" China works of calligraphy and painting my views - China painting (translation)

                                                                                                                               顾绍骅著

Gu Shaohua write



对中国画审美特征的理解会敏锐我们的直觉,欣赏时再结合想象,方能领略作品的文化背景和气韵、神韵、陶冶情怀。中国的书法与绘画是在一种特殊而古老的文明环境中产生的。几千年来,它们曾走过了从发端、童稚、成熟到升华变化,从实用到艺术化的漫长路程。毫不夸张地说,书与画是华夏民族的聪慧与创造力最集中的表现之一,并在某种意义上标志着华夏文明在古典文化艺术领域的最高水准。

The understanding of the aesthetic characteristics of Chinese painting will be keen on our intuition, when combined with the imagination, to appreciate the cultural background of the work and artistic conception, Romantic charm, Cultivate feelings. Chinese calligraphy and painting are produced in a special and ancient civilization. For thousands of years, they have gone through from the beginning, childish and mature to the sublimation of change, from the practical to the art of the long journey. It is no exaggeration to say that Chinese calligraphy and painting is one of the most concentrated expression of the Chinese nation's wisdom and creativity, and marks in a sense Chinese Civilization Classical culture in the field of art the highest level.

中国乃至东方世界对宇宙自然的看法,对社会人事的态度,对美与永恒性的追求,都在中国书画里得到了显化,并通过它们而获得了千百万炎黄子孙、东方朋友乃至世界各国朋友的认同。历代那些稚拙的或者雄健的或者秀美的碑帖法书,那些神秘的或灿烂的或淡雅的绘画名品,都是我们民族的精华——书画艺术家们(包括不知名姓的民间艺匠)以审美方式与主客体世界进行心灵对语的形象记录。这种对语有时达到了哲学化的高度,——在“若坐、若行、若飞、若动”的纵横笔画之间,在“有丰致、有缥缈”的笔情墨象之中,蕴含着情思,也体现着“道”,表现着人格乃至对生命宇宙的体验。

Chinese and the eastern world views of the universe's natural, social and personnel on the attitude of beauty and the pursuit of the eternal, in Chinese painting, has been significant, and through them, and access to the millions of Chinese people, Oriental friends and friends around the world agree. All those childish or powerful or beautiful China calligraphy rubbings or copybook, the mysterious or brilliant or elegant paintings of famous, is our national essence of painting and calligraphy artists (including unknown folk artisan) in aesthetic manner and objectivity of the soul of the world to record the image of language. This kind of language sometimes reach a height of philosophy, in the "It is sitting in, like walking, like flying, beating Vertical or like" horizontal strokes, "in the ink pen like Full or Wet strokes, Misty or Dry strokes", which contains emotion thinking, but also embodies the "Imitation or truth, the performance of the personality of the universe and of life experience.

可以说,每幅字、画都凝结着民族与时代的心态,积淀着民族精神的文化层。作为艺术,作为中国人心理意识结晶的书画艺术,就更不待言了。但不是每个人都能够在较高的层次上欣赏书画艺术。它是如此的丰富而悠久,精致而又神妙!要理解与感受神秘的陶绘,狞厉的青铜纹饰,静穆的佛像,意在笔墨之外的文人画和高度抽象、流动的书法点划结构,都需要一定的知识和修养。欣赏中国书画,允许欣赏者持的某种主观态度,这需要情感与想象。需要理性、确切的知识与判断。将二者合而为一,是笔者试图向读者提供的既引导欣赏,又介绍知识的文章。

It can be said that each word, painting are the times of the nation and the state of mind, the accumulation of the national spirit of the cultural layer. As art, as the Chinese people's consciousness of the crystallization of calligraphy and painting art, it is not to be said. But not everyone can appreciate the art of painting and calligraphy at a higher level. It is so rich and long, exquisite and Wonderful! To understand and feel the mysterious Tao painting, Ferocious's Bronze decoration, Solemn Buddha, intended to pen and ink painting and the painting of the highly abstract, the flow of calligraphy point structure, all need a certain amount of knowledge and self-cultivation. Enjoy Chinese and Chinese painting, allowing viewers to hold some kind of subjective attitude, which requires Emotion and imagination calligraphy. Need rational, precise knowledge and judgment. The two is to be made one, the author tries to guide readers of both shows, and on knowledge of the article.

传统中国画以毛笔、水墨、矿物质颜料、绢帛、宣纸等为工具(原料)从表现形式上分工笔画和写意画。人物画强调“传神”,通过对人物面部表情(特别是眼神的刻画)、肢体语言、环境等的表现,达到以形写神、突出人物的内心世界。山水画强调“诗情画意”表现雄壮粗犷或秀丽俊美的山式、云吞雾幕——情景交融的意境创造即:将大自然的美与文人逸趣(中国文化)紧密地糅合在一起,用高远、平远、深远(或合三远)法的结构画面,计白当黑的处理方式。花鸟画则以托物言志、借物抒怀;来赞美生命、歌颂大自然——挥洒“胸臆”。

Chinese traditional painting Writing brush, with ink, mineral pigments, silk silk, Xuan paper as the tools (raw materials) the fine brushwork and freehand brushwork paintings from the form. Figure painting emphasizes "vivid graphic", through the facial expression of the characters (especially the eyes of the characterization), body language, the performance of the environment, to achieve the shape of God, the prominent character of the One's inner world. Landscape painting emphasizes "poetic Chinese painting" Majestic and rough or Beautiful and handsome Wonton fog screen hill, Is a fusion of feelings with the natural setting to create the mood namely: the nature of the beautiful and Literati Yiqu (China Culture) closer together, with High, distance, Parallel, distance. Far reaching (Or put the three methods together) structure picture, treatment of reckon blank as inked. The Use the shape painting of the object to express ambition, Borrow Shuhuai; life to praise, praise of nature, "what is deep in one's with heart “thoughts or feelings deep in; one's heart”.

在笔墨色彩上讲究:1、笔法丰富、有力度,或浸润凝重、或枯涩快疾;或中锋、或逆锋、或侧锋、或拖笔、或散笔。2、墨法多层次的变化(五墨六彩——五墨是指焦、浓、重、淡、清,这是墨阶,如同音乐中的音阶。六彩指黑、白、浓、淡、干、湿,它是绘画中用墨变化的因素。),或积墨、或破墨、或泼墨。3、色彩为随类赋彩等感性色彩,讲求墨气、沉着(色彩以墨骨为主,施以淡彩)并有工笔重彩。总体上追求传统文化(内在的)与以线造型的笔墨意趣(外显的)融合,即:诗情画意和“气韵”、“神韵”的表现。在造型上不拘泥于外形的肖似(逼真),而着重表现物象内在的“气韵”、“神韵”与画家“胸臆”的挥写(抒发)。在构图、透视上的处理有别于西方绘画,以多角度、多视点(移动)的“散点透视”来表现画家的主观意图自由组合空间。那幺我们究竟如何欣赏呢?笔者认为可从以下几个方面去欣赏:中国的历史、文化背景、文学艺术(诗情画意)和笔墨技巧以及中国画色彩的魅力等方面去品味(欣赏)中国画作品。

Pay attention to the Ink color: 1, abundant technique, intensity, or Infiltration solemn, or Dry Fast or Center pen, or Against; the front side tip of the writing, or brush, or drag pen or casual. 2, method the use ink and water multi-level changes (Five ink six color - ink refers to Coke, thick, heavy, light, clear, this is the order of ink, as the scale of music in the scale of of,, of). The six color refers to Black, white, thick, light, dry and wet, which is a factor in painting with ink changes , Or accumulate ink color, Or rid of original ink color, sprinkle Ink color get the. 3, conformity to kind in applying color colors The spirit emphasizes the emotional color, of, ink (Black bone to calm color, with light color) and meticulous. The pursuit of traditional culture in general (internal) and the line shape of the Ink interest (explicit) fusion, namely: Poetic Chinese painting and "artistic conception", "Romantic charm" performance. In the form of Not rigidly adhere to in the same shape (realistic), and images focused on the internal performance of "artistic conception" and "Romantic charm" and "thoughts or feelings deep in artist one's heart" wrote the play (Shu Fa). In the composition, perspective on the treatment is different from western painting, multi angle, multi point of view (mobile) Scattered Perspective to show the subjective intention of the artist's free combination of space. So how do we actually enjoy? The author thinks that to appreciate from the following aspects: Chinese history, cultural background, literature and art (poetic Chinese painting) and China painting color and the painting skills of the charm of the areas to taste (appreciate) China painting works.

一、                          中国画史:

One, China painting History:

中国的绘画艺术,源远流长,波澜壮阔,在世界美术史上形成了最为繁盛而特具风格的绘画体系(越是民族的就越具世界性);蔡元培倡导“美育代宗教”,美术教育始见重视;原属宫廷和权贵秘藏的历代名画,也已纷纷散至民间,继而介绍到国外,引起了世界人士的瞩目赞叹、争相研究,这情形,又反过来刺激着中国的学者,痛感我国近代对于传统艺术研究之不足。

Chinese painting art, has a long history, Surge high and sweep forward, in the world art history form the most prosperous and a special style of painting system (The more the nation the, more cosmopolitan); Cai Yuanpei "Aesthetic education on behalf of advocated religion", art education only to see the palace and the powerful hidden origin; paintings, also have Scattered to folk, then introduced to foreign countries, the world's attention and praise people eager to study this, in turn, stimulates the pain China scholars in China in the past generation for traditional art Lack of research.

考证世界文化发源地:西方为意大利半岛,东方为中国。意大利吸收埃及与中央亚细亚古代文明之素养,启发于希腊、罗马两时代,分布于全欧洲,移植于美洲;中国则采纳美索八达米亚(古希腊人称这个地区为“美索八达米亚”,意即两河之间的土地,所谓两河,是指在亚洲西部今伊拉克境内的底格里斯河和幼发拉底河。这个地区面积不大,大体上相当于现在的伊拉克。)与印度文明之灌溉,汇成东方特殊系统之泉源;沿朝鲜及我国台湾一带流传于琉球、日本诸域,绘画上亦不外此线索。故西方绘画者,以意大利为母地,而东方绘画者,以中国为始祖矣。而中国绘画受中国传统文化(儒家、释家、道家)的影响,特别是“中庸”、“中和”思想——不偏不倚、不左不右;“含而不露”的人文精神;因此,隐涵、博义是其特点;加之其所用之工具、发展之情况等,都与西方绘画的造型、追求、情趣等不大相同。

Textual research on the origin of world culture: the west is the Italy Peninsula and the East is china. Italy absorbed Egypt and Central Asia literacy of ancient civilization, inspired by Greece, Rome two times, distributed in Europe, transplanted to the America; adopt MSO Bada Mia Chinese (the ancient Greeks called this area "MSO Bada Mia", which means the land between the rivers, the rivers, is in Western Asia today in Iraq the Tigris and Euphrates River. The area is small, roughly equivalent to the present. ) and irrigation of India civilization, Huicheng East special source of the system; spread in the region along the Ryukyu, Japan North Korea and China's Taiwan area, but also drawing on this clue. The western painting, with Italy as the parent, and the Oriental painting, to be China for ancestor. The China painting by the traditional culture China (the Confucian, school Buddhism, Taoist school) influence, especially the "The Doctrine of the Mean", "Intermediate benevolence harmony" --, avoid leaning to either side neither left nor right; "humanistic spirit; so Include without revealing, conversational implicature, Broad erudition is its characteristic; in addition, the tools for the development of the situation, with the western style of painting, the pursuit of taste is not the same, etc..

我国自有绘画以来,经古人专心致志的探求,四、五千年间长期的演变和进步,作手名家,人才辈出,你追我赶,且遍布华夏,各发挥一代之光彩。如顾恺之、陆探微、张僧繇、展子虔等都能以画而称为大家;到了唐代,有李思训、王维等成为南北二大派(风格)的代表。之后,继承传统作家如风云涌起,可谓数不胜数。所以说上下数千年的中国绘画史,于叙事上简便起见,大略可分为古代史,上世史,中世史,近世史,四篇,以寻求其变迁推移之痕迹。

Chinese painting painting since the ancient Devote oneself heart and search by soul to, 4~5000 years of evolution and progress for a long time, Painter Famous, painter, and an, ancient in race each other, name for China, the generation of glory. Such as Gu Kaizhi, Lu Tanwei, Zhang sengyao, Zhan ziqian, and so on can be painted and called everyone; to the Tang Dynasty, Li Sixun, Wang Wei and other representatives of the north and south to become the two largest (style) representatives of the. After inheriting the traditional writers such as storm surges, is beyond count. So that thousands of years China in painting history, narrative simplicity, can be roughly divided into Ancient history, Ancient history Part One, medieval history, modern history, four, to seek the change over the traces.

而顾恺之《女史箴图》(《女史箴图》为中国东晋绘画作品,作者顾恺之。原作已佚,现存有唐代摹本,原有12段,因年代久远,

现存《女史箴图》仅剩9段,为绢本,设色,纵24.8厘米、横348.2厘米。此图依据西晋张华《女史箴》一文而作,原文十二节,所画亦为十二段,现存自“冯媛挡熊”至“女史司箴敢告庶姬”共9段。作品注重人物神态的表现,用笔细劲连绵,色彩典丽、秀润。1860年“火烧圆明园”后被掠夺并流失海外,现收藏于大英博物馆。由于英国方面知识欠缺,保管不善,将其拦腰截为两段,并出现了掉渣现象。故宫博物院另藏有宋代摹本,纸本墨色,水平稍逊,而多出樊姬、卫女2段。作品描绘女范事迹,有汉代冯媛以身挡熊,保护汉元帝的故事;有班婕妤拒绝与汉成帝同辇,以防成帝贪恋女色而误朝政的故事等。其余各段都是描写上层妇女应有的道德情感,带有一定的说教性质。虽然作品蕴涵了妇女应当遵守的道德信条,但是对上层妇女梳妆妆扮等日常牛活的描绘,真实而生动地再现了贵族妇女的娇柔、矜持,无论身姿、仪态、服饰都合乎她们的身份和个性。其作品注重人物神态的表现,用笔细劲连绵,色彩明丽、秀润。《女史箴图》中不同身份的宫廷妇女形象,是作者所处时代的妇女生活情景的反映。图中的妇女形象典雅端庄,神情温顺柔和,体现了顾恺之绘画用线的精细绵密,如“春蚕吐丝”,人物形神兼备。)亦尚留存于人间,足以供我们参考。此画曾被记录于《宣和画谱》(《宣和画谱》是北宋宣和(1119~1125)年间由官方主持编撰的宫廷所藏绘画作品的著录著作。全书共20卷,著录宋徽宗时宫廷所藏的魏晋以来历代绘画作品,共计画家231人,作品6396件。按题材分为10门:道释49人,人物33人,宫室4人,番族5人,龙鱼8人,山水41人,畜兽27人,花鸟46人,墨竹12人,蔬果6人。 此书的体例是每门先作叙论,其次是画家评传,包括籍贯、仕履、才具、学养、擅长、故实等,传后再具列作品目及件数。《宣和画谱》产生的时期,正值北宋画院制度最完备,院画创作达到高峰之时,也是最高统治者对历代绘画名作尽力搜罗、库充最富的时期。凭借这种种条件,才成就了这一著作,作为官方之著,理论的创新或许不算多,而其著录之完备,篇幅之大,却不失为巨著,对了解、研究绘画史有不可忽视的功用。)、《米芾画史》(《画史》是一部绘画鉴评作品,又名《米海岳画史》。全书共一卷,北宋米芾撰。《画史》约成书于1101年前后,举其平生所见晋代以来名画(其中亦间有未见者),品评优劣,鉴别真伪,考订谬误,指出风格特点,作者及藏处,甚至间及装裱、印章,亦收进画坛遗事秘闻,颇具资料价值。且由于此书材料多随手拈来,缺乏条理,加以部分文字古奥难解,很难入于上乘的理论、学术著作之列。)、《陈继儒妮古录》(《妮古录》明陈继儒撰。四卷。杂记书画、碑帖、古玩及遗闻轶事。陈继儒是明代著名的书画鉴藏家,富于收藏,精于鉴赏,并且撰写了多部书画著录。本文从多角度去研究陈继儒,包括他的山人身份的考察,《妮古录》的解读,书画鉴藏活动以及书画鉴定和书画创作等方面,以求整体上探讨陈继儒的书画鉴藏世界。本文从晚明山人展开讨论,作为具有山人普遍特征的陈继儒,交游、著书、鉴赏自真,为了给后人留下可供参考的书画文献,著录了《妮古录》。从《妮古录》当中,笔者看到了陈继儒的书画鉴藏活动和书画理论倾向,陈继儒与董其昌、项氏家族、李日华等书画收藏家交往频繁,其中与董其昌的书画交流更是长达三十多年之久,与江南地区书画名流的交往,拓宽了陈继儒的书画鉴定能力,培养了他典型的“文人画”倾向。陈继儒与董其昌的书画交流中,培养了二人共同的书画理论,陈继儒在其撰写的著书中大力提倡“南北宗”,为最终董其昌提出的“南北宗论”起到了很好的宣传作用。陈继儒的书画鉴藏活动,使其培养了独特的书画鉴定能力,分析了大量书画的真伪,也为陈继儒的书画创作提供了有益的帮助,最后笔者分析了陈继儒的画梅和山水画的特点。)、《朱彝尊曝书亭书画跋》(清初巨儒朱彝尊(1629~1709),清代词人、学者、藏书家。是一位学识渊博,独兼众长的学者。《曝书亭集》中序跋文尽显其考订之长。 朱彝尊长于考订,题跋之作尽显功力,一向受到高度的重视。)、《石渠宝笈》(《石渠宝笈》是清代乾隆、嘉庆年间的大型著录文献,初编成书于乾隆十年(1745年),共编四十四卷。著录了清廷内府所藏历代书画藏品,分书画卷、轴、册九类。作为我国书画著录史上集大成者的旷古巨著,书中所著录的作品汇集了清皇室收藏最鼎盛时期的所有作品,而负责编撰的人员均为当时的书画大家或权威书画研究专家。2014年,江西美术出版社和故宫出版社在《石渠宝笈》的基础上,联合出版《故宫博物院藏清内府抄本合编石渠宝笈(精选配图版)》,为《石渠宝笈》配图,是前者在当代的新发展,增加了其研究价值和鉴藏价值。)等诸书。因清代末列强的掠夺而散失,今藏于英国博物馆。无论其为摹本,修缮本,都足以窥见顾氏(顾恺之)及当时画风都是与之相似。虽然在此之间的画风及技巧诸方面,有多次的变化,如:两汉的雄浑朴厚,六朝开始逐渐精细(工笔),隋朝就画得很精致华丽了;然而大体都是先以墨线勾轮廓(以线造型),再赋以彩色,并在此前后都是遵循这一程序(系统)来进行的;这种方法成为亚洲大陆共同的绘画式样。印度阿近他窟,我国敦煌石室,日本法隆寺金堂等之壁画,均系类似手法。(《宣和画谱》等古书籍介绍英文省略。

Gu Kaizhi "Admonitions Scroll" are still retained in the world, sufficient for our reference. This painting had been recorded in the "Xuanhe a book on the art of drawing or painting", "Mi Fu's painting", "Chen Jiru Ni Gu recorded", "Zhu Yizun exposed Shuting painting postscript", "Shih-ch'u Pao-chi" and other books. Loss due to plunder of foreign powers at the end of the Qing Dynasty, now preserved in the British museum. Whether it is a copy of the repair, are enough to get a glimpse of Gu (Gu Kaizhi) and the style are similar. Although in this style and skills between the various aspects, there are a number of changes, such as: the powerful Puhou the Han Dynasty, the Six Dynasties began gradually refined (meticulous), the Sui Dynasty painting a very delicate gorgeous; but generally are first in line hook contour (line modeling), and then given to color, and before and after all follow this procedure (system) to carry out; this method has become a common painting style of Asian continent. India, near his cave, China Dunhuang Shishi, Japan horyuji Jintang murals are in a similar way. (Admonitions Scroll,"Xuanhe a on the art drawing or painting" and so on the introduction of the ancient books of. Omitted.) "book ellipsis

魏晋以后,我国的书学(书法)大发展,绘画上亦开始受书法运笔之影响。到了唐代就更盛行了,大大地发挥毛笔画线上的抑、扬、顿、挫之特有的趣味,开吴道子“兰叶描”(十八描的一种)等诸新法,一变隋陈细润之习,成正大雄浑之风格。

兼以唐、宋二代,禅风与诗理学之互相因缘,大大地促进了水墨画的发展,与山水、花鸟画之流行,使玩赏绘画者得到最大益处——“赏心悦目”;这样一来顿时成为当时社会(唐、宋)的新趋势(时尚),从而开辟了我国绘画史上的新纪元。元代的画风,虽是唐、宋二世的过渡之桥梁,然而大体上承唐宋之余波,仍可划入于“中世”。明、清二代,除明初画院中的水墨苍劲派外,其画风都可以概括为以“纤、浓、轻、软”呈现其特色,而存在有向近体转变的姿态。虽然,在这期间实际上是风俗画(传统绘画)之兴起与西洋画风的输入,这两者之间相互作用、相互交融,开一时之新生面,而呈现其变革(并延续至今)。然而这些变革的均系局部中之小波澜。虽然,绘画为艺术之一种,其演进之途程,总是依随当时的政治、思想、教育及特殊之环境而异其趋向。我国四、五千年来,随思潮之起落,战争之频发,政局之更易,则变化多端,其直接或间接地影响于绘画;因此,在绘画形式、绘画内容和绘画风格上各具变化与政治是形影之相随;也就是人们常说的:“艺术当随时代变”。

After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the great development of Chinese calligraphy and calligraphy began to be influenced by calligraphy. The Tang Dynasty is more prevalent, greatly inhibit the development and carry forward, pause, and the unique taste brush line, Wu Daozi "Lanyemiao" A kind of technique of Chinese painting ("Eighteen trace" Chinese painting techniques) of the new law, a the Sui Dynasty expressed delicate Change, rounded habit. Become Zhengda vigorous style. And in Tang and Song Dynasty two dynasties, Zen and poetry theory of mutual karma, greatly promoted the development of ink painting, and popular landscape, flower and bird painting, the painting to get the maximum benefit, "Be good to hear or see"; so suddenly became the society of Tang and song (two the new trend of the dynasty) (Fashion), which opened a new era in the history of Chinese painting. Yuan's style, although Tang and Song Dynasties two transition of the bridge, but in the aftermath of the Tang and Song Dynasties, can be included in the "world". Ming and Qing Dynasties two, in addition to the Ming Dynasty at the beginning of the Vigorous ink genre academy, their style can be summarized as "shows its characteristics to thin, light, soft, shaggy, and there is close to body posture change. Although, in this period is actually Genre painting (traditional painting) and the rise of the Western painting style input, the interaction between them, mutual exchanges, opened at the new face, and showed its changes (and continues). However, these changes are small waves within the department. Although the painting as a kind of art, the evolution of the process, always in accordance with the prevailing political, ideological, special education and the environment vary its trend. In China from 4 to 5000 years, with thoughts of the ups and downs, the frequency of the war, the more councils, would be the most changeful, directly or indirectly impact on the painting; therefore, in the form of painting, painting and painting style on the content of the various changes and Xingying of politics is accompanied; is often said: "when the arts change with the times".

近一百年间特别是近二十年来随艺术流派、艺术形式的纷繁,以创新为目的画作也频频地出现在我们的视野里,真是“百花齐放、百家争鸣”。他们是:1、以传统绘画美为美的代表画家:齐白石、

    张大千、

   唐云、

    溥佐、

   于非闇、

   黄胄、

   王雪涛、

    朱屺瞻、

田世光、

    张世简、

    叶浅予、

   姚有多、  


白雪石、

    傅抱石、

   宋文治、

任率英、

     陈师曾等。



For nearly one hundred years, especially with numerous art schools and art form in the past twenty years, innovation for the purpose of the paintings also frequently appear in our field of vision, it is "All flowers bloom together, Contention of a hundred schools of thought". They are: 1, to the United States as the representative of the traditional painting artist: Qi Baishi, Zhang Daqian, Tang Yun, Yu feian, Huang Zhou, Pu Zuo, Wang Xuetao, Zhu Qizhan, Tian Shiguang, Zhang Shijian, Ye Qianyu, Yao Youduo, stone, Fu Baoshi, Ren Lvying, Chen Shiceng, song wenzhi.

2、传统绘画美结合西方绘画美的代表画家:徐悲鸿、

      蒋兆和、

   林凤眠等。


2, the traditional painting of the United States and the United States and the United States and the United States painting artist: Xu Beihong, Jiang Zhaohe, Lin Fengmian, etc..


待续

To be continued



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顾绍骅 发表于 2017-2-25 11:56:26
二                文化背景

Two      cultural background

1、 传统文化的融合
古代文人大多视绘画为余事,同书法一样用来充实自己的精神家园,情感得到宣泄,心灵得到净化。如米芾的画作,水墨点点,视为戏作,是作者随意、自然、不蹈故常的心态写照。也有的画家视绘画为生命,淡泊名利,为艺术而终生求索,同样受到人们的敬重。如清代的石涛,虽出家为僧,但在绘画创作上却倾注了大量的心血和汗水,他在绘画上的标新立异,招致了周围同道们的讥讽和嘲笑。但他不受时风的左右,提倡一画之法,主张画家要借写生抒发真情实感,不要斤斤计较于一点一画的得失,要从全局着眼。因此他的山水、人物画形态恣肆,不拘绳墨。其“墨海中立定精神”的主旨被后人广为传颂。通过上述分析,可给我们以如下三点启示:其一,恰如其分地抒情表意还要以深厚的笔墨功夫和广博的学养为根基。文入画的创作虽然要摆脱纸笔的限制,创造新的意境,一切服从于抒情主题,但有一点必须明确,即扎实的技法是表达情感的基础,熟练畅快地驾驭笔墨丹青,才能卓有成效。文人画家—般都书画兼善,如苏轼、米芾,皆执宋代书坛、画坛之牛耳,是后学效法的楷模。不断地加强自身的修养,澄澈内心也是文入画家的基本功。

1, the integration of traditional culture
Most of the ancient literati painting as a matter of fact, with the same as calligraphy to enrich their spiritual home, emotional catharsis, mind purification. Like Mi Fei's paintings, ink dots, as a joke for the author is free, natural, Too observant of conventional standards don't mind. Some artists as painting to life, indifferent to fame and wealth, and life-long search for the arts, equally respected by people. Such as Tao Shi in the Qing Dynasty, although the monk, but in the creation of painting has devoted a lot of effort and sweat, his painting on the start sth. new in order to be different, made friends ridiculed and laughed at. Free from the prevailing style but he left, promote a painting of the law, that artists to express real feelings through painting, do not Jinjinjijiao one point one gains and losses, we should focus on the overall situation. Therefore, his landscape painting patterns Zisi, shengmo. The theme of "Pen culture The spirit of standing" was later praised. Through the above analysis, we can give inspiration to the following three points: first, to a proper extent to the lyric sheet intended to deep Pen culture and extensive efforts of school support for the foundation. The picturesque, although the creation of pen and paper to get rid of restrictions, create new artistic conception, subject to all the lyrical theme, but it should be clear that the technique is a solid basis for the of emotion, skilled Chinese brush Mo Danqing cool to control can be very fruitful. Literati painters - all paintings general Jianshan, such as Su Shi, Mi Fei, all with Great song of the altar, the painting of artist learning model is the model. Continue to strengthen its cultivation of basic skills, Chengche heart is the text of the painter.

古代文人往往据于儒、依于道、欹于禅,对儒学、道家、禅宗理论浸淫颇深,进而极大地丰富了中国传统文人的文化思想,提高了文人的文化素质,对精神升华也起到了不可忽视的作用,这样他们的画作就体现了多重内涵,具有真正的艺术价值。其二,文人画家不管荣辱得失,始终痴迷于绘事。这固然和文人画特有的寄情功能有关。在—定程度上也反映了文人们对这门艺术的迷恋和热爱,毕生不辍。李苦禅先生在解放前生活困顿,还要经常面对日寇的威逼利诱,即便身陷囹圄仍念念不忘画艺。他笔下的雄鹰,气度超凡,目光炯炯,傲视苍穹,正是先生历万劫而不悔的生动写照。齐白石先生在中国画坛独树一帜,倡导新的画风,但却遭到别人的非议和围攻,但老人却以“不挨骂长不大”坦然应对,他笔下的群虾互相追逐嬉戏,逍遥自在。由画及人,我们可以得知画家内心对艺术的痴迷。其三,创作时要任心态自然流露。画家是绘画艺术王国的主宰,有了精深的笔墨功夫之后,可以暂时忘却一切,全神贯注地用艺术语言记录自己的所思所想。这样的创作过程不需要任何掩饰或是矫揉造作,不做任何名利之想,追求自然、纯真,这才是理想的创作过程:,如此才能创造美好的意境,作品才能成为寄情写志的上乘之作。研究心态与文入画的创作对我们的绘画创作具有重要意义。

The ancient literati often According to Confucianism、According to Taoism、According to the Buddhist, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen theory of Profound research, which has greatly enriched the China traditional literati culture, improve the cultural quality of the literati, also on the spirit of sublimation played a role can not be ignored, so that they reflect the paintings on the multiple connotations, with real artistic value. Second, the literati painters regardless of the pros and cons of honor, always obsessed with painting. This is of course and literati paintings unique Jiqing function. To a certain extent, also reflects the people's fascination with this art and love, Life Buchuo. Li Ku Chan in the predicament of life before liberation, but also often face the coercion, even shenxianlingyu Huayi still an obsession. He's an eagle, Bearing extraordinary, One's eyes flashed like lightning, Proud look The overarching sky, Mr. Li is eternal and not regret a vivid portrayal. Mr. Qi Baishi in the Chinese painting advocate new style, become an independent school, but others were objectionable, and the siege, but the elderly are "not scolded, not long" calm response, group of shrimp under his pen and chased each other, leisurely and carefree. By painting and people, we can learn that the artist's inner obsession with art. Third, the creation of any natural state of mind. The painter is a master of the art of painting the Kingdom, a sophisticated Pen and ink culture Kungfu, can forget everything, to be absorbed in his own artistic language records and thinking. This creative process does not need any disguise or Try to deceive by covering up one's real purpose, do not do anything to the fame and fortune, the pursuit of natural, pure, this is the ideal creative process, so as to create a better mood, work can become fine Jiqing write in for. The research mentality and the picturesque creation is of great significance to our painting creation.

2、        诗情画意与中国画的意境:

“无诗不能成画、无画不能为诗”(没有不能成为画的诗,也没有不能写成诗的画)。画家在画作上题以诗文,或记下创作背景,或只写一个言简意赅的画题,通过这样的题跋,—方面表达自己的思想,抒发自己的情感;另一方面,也使画的意境更加深邃,主题更加突出,布局构图更加完善,如果题跋又是精美的书法,那么观者在赏画的同时,还可得到书法的美感享受,这幅画作岂不是更加完美?诗情画意是中国画所追求的最高“境界”;并且诗、书、画、印堪称“四绝”。这是因为诗、画都是写人绘景;诗画并举,相映生辉,形成中国画一道亮丽的风景。由此可见,它们之间的关系应是有机结合的,不能把诗文视为多余。大画家黄宾虹曾说:“中国画有三不朽”,其中就有“诗书画合一不朽也”。

2,poetic Chinese painting the artistic conception of Chinese painting:
"There is no poem can not be a painting, no painting can not be a poem" (there is no poem can not be painted, there is no poem can not be written). In the paintings of the artist on the title to poetry, or a note of creative background, or just write a concise and comprehensive painting, through such inscriptions, and express their ideas, express their feelings; on the other hand, also make the painting more profound, more prominent theme, layout composition more perfect, if comments is the exquisite calligraphy, so the viewer in a picture at the same time, can enjoy the beauty of calligraphy, this painting is not a more perfect? Poetic Chinese painting is the highest pursuit of the "realm" China painting; and poetry, calligraphy, painting, seal Chinese called "four". This is because the poetry, painting is to write people painting king; poetry, Chinese painting simultaneously, Mutual confrontation glorify, the formation of a beautiful landscape of Chinese painting. Thus, the relationship between them should be an organic combination of poetry can not be considered redundant. Huang Binhong, a great painter, once said, "there are three immortals in Chinese painting"".

事实上,自古以来,将诗书画结合巧妙的人大有人在。比如:徐渭在《葡萄》上的题诗:“半生落魄已成翁,独立书斋啸晚风,笔底明珠无处卖,闲抛闲掷野藤中。”如果抛开这首诗,只是—串葡萄而已,还有何意义。

郑板桥一生爱竹、画竹他在《竹石》诗中写道:“咬定青山不放松,立根原在破岩中;千磨万击还坚劲,任尔东西南北风。”他以竹自喻、刚直不阿。可见,好的题画诗可以使画的意境更加深邃,主题更加突出有意义,甚至达到点石成金、化腐朽为神奇的作用。画友在一幅山水画中题跋道:“乱石堆中水一泓,草舍置于野林中,远离尘器听鸟语,管他春夏与秋冬。”在《农家之秋》中题曰:“谁说秋天气萧森,经霜红叶更精神,农夫收禾不在家,寻亲访故莫敲门。”在一幅《瀑布图》中题道:“清泉出山不停息,人生苦短自奋蹄。”在另一幅山水中题曰:“岸边房舍绿荫浓,船泊碧水一江中。静看云起云又落,闲坐船头作渔翁。”这是画家思想情感的自然流露,写景抒情朴实宛如“绿色食品”一样。



In fact, since ancient times, poetry, calligraphy, Chinese painting has a lot of clever people. For example: Xu Wei in "Grape" on the Half my life is Tishi: "not successful, has now become the old man Standing in, the study, at night and the wind chanting poetry, The grapes under the Chinese brush are nowhere to sell, Leisurely throwing wild vine." If you put aside the poem, just a bunch of grapes, what's the point?. Zheng Banqiao life love bamboo, the bamboo he wrote in "bamboo and stone" in the poem: "Insist not relax Castle Peak, The root of standing in the broken rock; Nature's millions of blows, he is strong, At the four corners of the world wind crazy." He is bamboo self, Upright and a outspoken. Therefore, a good poems inscribed on paintings can make the painting more profound, more prominent themes meaningful, even to able to perform wonders, turn bad into good effect. Friends in a painting landscape painting Inscriptions: "The rubble a fountain, The thatched house in the jungle, Listen to the birds away from dust Regardless of, his spring, summer autumn, and winter." The title said "autumn farmers": "Who says autumn weather Xiao Sen, After cold air Red autumnal leaves more spirit, cut the corn The farmer is not at home, Looking for relatives visit friends don't knock at the door." In a waterfall diagram in question: Clear spring out the mountains Won't Stop, Life is short, you have to struggle flows." In another landscape, said: The houses Green dense shore, The ship at the blue green water Jiang Zhong in stopped. Static view the clouds and cloud, Sit bow fisherman from." This is a painter 's spontaneous emotion and scenery Lyric like a simple "green food".

例如:顾绍骅创作的中国山水诗意画——《送僧游山》

For example: Gu Shaohua's poetic Chinese painting -- "Send monks visit the mountains"

【原诗(词)】:云身自在山山去,何处灵山不是归。日暮寒林投古寺,雪花飞满水田衣。——唐朝·熊孺登 《送僧游山》诗意



【赏析】:诗意深富禅趣——禅心如云,自自在在的向着一山又一山飞去,又有何处的灵山不可归去呢? 我去古寺“进香”,在风雪之中的傍晚穿越寒林;凛冽的寒风夹杂着雪花,狠狠地拍打在我的脸上、身体上,同时也钻进了我的领口、袖口,并且,那冰晶的雪花沾满了我的“水田”衣;这么的天寒地冻,我是“心诚则灵啊”!
规格:100×68cm       纸本设色  2006年创作)

[poetry]: The wandering body freely in the mountains to visit the mountains, And everywhere is their holy places, why can't return? The evening went to the temple to the cold forest, Snow filled the paddy field. - Tang - Xiong Rudeng "Send monks visit the mountains to"
[Appreciate]: The poems of deep of rich Buddhist Charm The Buddhist thoughts like clouds, From the freedom of a mountain and a mountain to fly, And everywhere is their holy places why can't return?? I went to the temple "pilgrimage", in the snow in the evening through the cold forest; cold wind mixed with snow, mercilessly slapping me in the face and body, but also got into my collar and cuffs, and the ice snow covered with my "paddy" clothes; so very cold. I am only when one believes "work in it sincerely"!
Specification: 100 * 68cm paper colors created in 2006)

笔者也在“自画像”中这样题道:“儒世家门坠一瓜,阎罗殿上险遭杀。翰林府第三敬履,蟾桂宫前四献花。”{笔者本人路遇车祸、险丧性命;康复后,又就读于中国书协书培中心之高级书法班时写的一首《感遇》诗。释义:书香世家生了一个男孩,阎王殿上险些被杀害。(在)翰林学府(书法培训中心)里,要象张良当年求学时①(注①:韩信当年求学时,其师试他的诚心与决心,过桥时有意将鞋子失落于桥下,张良当即将老师鞋子拾回,并双手敬奉给老师;如此三次,皆如此。其师为之所动,遂授兵书三卷,并予以指点,终使张良能成大业。这就是“遗桥三敬履”的历史故事),有诚心与决心刻苦学习;学成后一定以优异的成绩报效祖国。}。一幅画画得再好它所反映的物象、表现的空间是有限的,只有诗画并举,才能表现时空、寓意深刻。



The author is "self portraits" in this title: "A child born in Confucian family, Yanwangdian almost killed. The highest institution of Chinese Calligraphy Study carefully, After studying some excellent results to repay the state and society."{The author in the College Road, was hit by a car, Almost lost life; after rehabilitation, and attended Chinese Shuxie training centre on the high calligraphy class to write a song "Ganyu poem". Interpretation: the literary family gave birth to a boy, Yanwangdian almost killed. (in) Hallym University (calligraphy training center), like Zhang Liang in the year to study at (Note: Han Xin was in school, the teacher tries his sincerity and determination to put shoes lost in the bridge under the bridge, when the teacher Zhang Liang will pick up shoes, hands and worship for the teacher; so three times so, all. The division by the move, and grant three volumes, and to guide, so that Zhang Liang can end the big industry. This is the "On the bridge three times to help the teachers wear shoes allusions"), historical stories are sincere and determined to study hard; some after graduation with honors to serve the motherland. }. A picture of a good image, it reflects the space is limited, only poetry and painting simultaneously, to display the time, entertain a thought deeply.

白石老人一幅条幅,画的下方只画了三只小鸡。其余全是空白,只是在右上方题了长款,计白当黑,虚实结合,诗画互补,相映生辉,别有一番趣味。题画诗,还可以使画家爱、憎、悲、愁、褒、贬、扬、弃等多种情感更加强烈地倾注于画面。再如在画作《不倒翁》上题道:“乌纱白扇俨然官,不倒原来泥半团,将汝忽然来打破,通身何处有心肝。”这样的题跋使一幅简单的不倒翁画变得意境深远,意义不凡。如果不是这首诗,画中的不倒翁就显得毫无意义。



A Qi Baishi painting scroll, painted just below the painting of the three chicks. The rest is blank, just in the upper right of the long paragraph, reckon blank as inked, selective focus, Poetry painting each other, Complement each other, do not have some fun. Poems Inscribed on paintings, so that artists can also love, hate, sadness, sorrow, derogatory and commendatory, Yang, abandoned and other emotions more strongly into the picture. Another example is in the works of "Tumbler" on the title: "Black gauze cap, white fan is very much like the official, The reason for not falling is Half sludge Hereunder Will you, suddenly break, The upper and lower body where there is a heart?." This preface and postscript; make a simple painting changed Bu Daoweng mood in the far-reaching significance. If it weren't for the poem, the Tumbler in the painting would be meaningless.

白石老人《不倒翁》的题画诗对那种道貌岸然、久居高位,却无任何修养,只会欺压百姓的饭桶草包官给予了有力的鞭笞。画家爱什么,恨什么,旗帜非常鲜明,感受常强烈。如徐渭的题葡萄诗,郑板桥的题竹诗都倾注着画家强烈的思想感情。画家融情于画,更借诗直抒胸臆。看着画,读着诗,使观画者受到强烈的感染。画因诗而更具情感魅力;诗因画而更加意义不凡。诗画相得益彰,类似这样好的题画诗在当今画坛也并不鲜见。因而构成了中国画独有的艺术特色,达到一个高层次的美学水平,这是其它任何艺术所不能比拟的。有诗言:又如有山不宜平。”作画亦然。

Qi Baishi's "tumbler" poems inscribed on paintings, that pose as a person of high morals, without any training, only the oppressed people of Idiot Officer to give a powerful Lash. What artists love, hate what, the flag is very bright, often strong feelings. Such as Xu Wei's question Grape poetry,'s bamboo poems are devoted to the artist's strong feelings. The artist emotion in painting, by expressing thoughts or feelings deep in poem one's heart. Look at the picture, read the poem, so that the painter was a strong infection. The painting is more emotional because of poetry; poetry is more meaningful than painting. Poetry and Chinese painting complement each other complement each other, Poems Inscribed on like this good paintings in today's art world is also not uncommon. Thus constitute the unique artistic features of Chinese painting, to achieve a high level of aesthetics, which is any other art, can not be compared. There is a poem: And if mountain is not the flat." Painting is also.

中国园林讲究以“曲径通幽”式的廊回路转、流水小桥分割空间,制造出一种视觉上的隐蔽迷离之美。中国画亦常在笔墨境象的模糊中追求亦此亦彼、非此非彼,超以象外、得其环中的艺术效果。其魅力之所在,正是借助于形式与精神的诗意化气质,引发人们对有限物象的联想,使画中最难表达的意态与神采转化为弦外之音的回响,使欣赏者能够在瞬间获得一个整体的对绘画时空观的认知与把握。这种认知通常是一个关于审美对象模糊的整体图景的显现,并不拘泥于某一细节。



China landscape "The winding path leads to a secluded quiet place" type, water bridge division space, creating a visual blur the hidden beauty. China painting is often in The cultural environment of Writing brush and ink fuzzy pursuit in both this and that, this is not out of the ordinary, the ring, artistic effect. The charm of poetic temperament, it is with the help of form and spirit, lead people to think of the limited object, and will look to the most difficult to express into overtones response, so that the participants can in an instant access to a drawing on the overall understanding and grasp of space and time. This kind of cognition is usually a manifestation of the overall picture of the vague aesthetic object, and is not restricted to a particular detail.

而却更多地关注着诸如委婉、含蓄、一波三折的情境语言的运用;关注虚空、澄明、言外之意、象外之声的经营构思谋略;张彦远在《历代名画记》中所讲“意在笔先,画尽意在”,写意自古就是民族艺术观,也是中国绘画艺术的美学原则所谓“一枝一叶总关情”,我们所画的植物,它既无感情,也无思想,而画家们往往赋予它们某种含义,即画家立意的主观作用自然美的特征触动了画家的某种情感,从而“借景抒情,以物言志”画家们正是以自己独特的视角及感觉确定自已的“立意”,以表达自己的感情,“立意”不是纯主观的臆造,它是画家体验认识生活的结果它是一种美的理解和认识,它还包括了人的思想、感情、理想、修养在里面。通过“外师造化,中得心源”,也就是通过向客观事物要感觉之后形成和发现不同一般的认识,这才是----“意”也可以说“意”足一切艺术作品的灵魂:只有在感情和认识的基础上半场提炼、概括、升华而形成的“立意”,才是绘画作品所需的应该说“意”足情的升华情是“意”的基础。

And is more concerned about the use of situational language such as tactful and reserved, the void, striking one snag after another; focus on clarity, implication, as the voice of the business concept of strategy; Zhang Yanyuan in "The famous paintings through the ages" mentioned in the "work out the plot before putting pen to paper, Chinese painting finished Significance in" that is the ancient folk art freehand concept is China painting art aesthetic principles of the so-called "A branch, a leaf is always related to affectionate expression", we are painting plants, it has no feelings, no thoughts, and artists often give them a meaning, namely the characteristics of subjective conception of the natural beauty of the artist role touch a painter's emotion, thus "lyric by King, to express" artists are in their own unique perspective and feel it Set their own "conception", to express their feelings, "make up one's mind" is not a purely subjective conjecture, it is the artist experience life and it is a kind of beauty and understanding, it also includes people's thoughts, feelings, ideals, culture inside. Through the "The study of nature Get your own knowledge", that is, through to the objective things to feel, formed and found different understanding in general, this is the "meaning", also can say "meaning" all the soul of Art: only based on emotion and recognition in the first half, refining summary and sublimation and the formation of "make up one's mind", is the painting required should be said that the "meaning" foot the sublimation of love love is "meaning" basis.

《罗丹艺术论》中曾说过“艺术就是感情”,没有感情基础的艺术,也就是说连自己都不感动的东西史无法打动别人的我们欣赏画时,时为其内含的艺术魅力所吸引,画有十分意趣、主观思想相互交融;为画外之意,弦外之情所打动、所陶冶、所感染,这就是“意境”作用…:“意境”是艺术的灵魂,是客观事物精华部分的集中,加上人的思想感情的陶铸,经过高度艺术加工达到情景交融,借景抒情,从而表现出来的艺术境地是鲜活的、生动的。

"Luo Dan art theory" said "art is emotional," not based on feelings of the art, that is to say if you don't move things to impress others and we appreciate the history of painting, attracted by the artistic charm of its implicit, painting a very interest, subjective thinking of mutual exchanges; Beyond painting Significance String, outside friendship, moved by the mould, the infection, this is the "artistic conception"... "Artistic conception" is the soul of art, is part of the essence of things, coupled with people's thoughts and feelings of the Tao Zhu, after the height reached Is a fusion of art feelings with the natural setting, take advantage of a scene to express one's emotion, which showed the state of the art is fresh and vivid.

白居易认为学无常师,故其指一意状一物,往往运思中与神会”。他在《画竹歌》中写道:“不根而生从意生,不笋而成由笔成(不是根而生出与根相同的意义的生命,不是竹笋而制成的笔成为很好的笔…)……举头忽看不似画,低手静听疑有声。”似乎早已悟出了中国画“妙在似与不似之间”的真谛。中国画家与诗人“游心之所在”( 游离、创新的思想之所在),就是自身对造化自然独特感悟的美境,创造的意象。这电决定了中国画自始至终的浪漫主义情结和诗性的内质。董其昌说得好:“诗以山川为境,山川亦以诗为境。(诗情是以山川为境界,山川也是以诗意为境界。”)”艺术家禀赋的诗心,映像着天地万物的诗心,山川大地是宇宙诗心的影现(艺术家充满诗意的情怀,表现着喜爱大自然万物的诗意,山川大地是宇宙诗心的影现);画家诗人的心灵活跃,本身就是宇宙的创化,它的卷舒取舍,好似太虚片云、寒塘雁迹,空灵而自然。中国画家诗人“迹化自然,因心造境,曲尽蹈虚揖影之妙”(“一切痕迹的表现,都是来源于自然,因为艺术家的心境而造出画境来,这一切音乐、舞蹈都是空的、虚的,只是艺术家发挥自己想象而表现出的漂亮的画”宗白华语),可以说是中国诗画的基本特征。也是崇尚“虚空”之美的写意型的中国画与以“实”为本(巴门尼德的Being)的西方古典绘画在创作观念上的最大区别。

Bai Juyi thinks that A learner has no need of a constant teacher So one idea Describe an object, thought with God". He wrote in "Bamboo song": "Not from the roots and from the meaning of life, Not grown from bamboo shoots, is formed by Writing brush (not the root and root and give birth to the same meaning of life, not the bamboo shoots and made a good pen pen...)...... Raise the head look like painting, Listen to sound of suspected the me Suddenly no." It seems to have realized the true meaning of Chinese painting "Be Subtle Artistically to be Both Real and Unreal" in Depicted. Chinese painter and poet "Wandering thoughts Where" (free, innovative ideas, where) is its own unique insight on the nature of natural beauty, to create the image. This power determines the romantic complex and poetic nature of Chinese painting from beginning to end. Dong Qichang said: "poetry in the mountains and rivers for the environment, the mountains and rivers are also poetry for the environment. (poetry in the mountains and mountains with poetic realm, but also for the realm. ")" Artist endowment heart of the poem, the image of all things of the heart, mountains and the earth is the universe is the impact of heart Poetry (artist full of poetic expression, poetic nature of things, like mountains and the earth is the universe is the impact of heart Poetry); the painter poet's mind active, is the founding of the universe, it the Roll up and unfold, Admission and renunciation, A cloud in the universe, like Cold pond, The wild goose footprint, ethereal and natural. Chinese painter and poet "traces of natural Thought, creating environment, Best song and dance, seize the wonderful virtual shadow" ("all traces of the performance are derived from nature, because the mood of the artists to create painting, music and dance are all empty, empty, only artists play their own imagination show the beautiful picture in Chinese), white can be said to be the basic characteristics of China poem. It is also the biggest difference between the freehand brushwork of Chinese painting and the western painting of "reality" (Ba Mened's Being).

在美术史上,自古以来就有两种完全不同的表现方式:一种是以再现客观世界为主的写实型艺术,它以西方古典油画为代表;一种是以表现主观心绪与情感为主的浪漫、表现型艺术。中国画就是以后者为其基本特征的。浪漫、表现性绘画,早在战国时代的楚墓帛画《人物夔凤图》

及西汉马王堆幡画中就已初露端倪。

自唐朝文人画初创以来,中国绘画则更加注重托物抒情、以画寄乐的表达方式的运用。而“绘画以形似,见与儿童邻(绘画如果以画得“形似”而判定好与坏,他的见识与儿童一样)”也正是苏轼对先贤们艺术实践的理论总结。它之所以能够存在,并且,具有旺盛的生命力,一直被文人们捧为绘画的至理,原因是离不开在中国哲学虚空的宇宙观(老子“万物生于有,有生于无”)影响下艺术家对诗化的精神内质与诗意的形式外观的永恒追求。的确,中国绘画的这种观念也正是把握了中国艺术的精神实质,把握了中国艺术诗性的品质特点,才经受住了时间风雨的考验,并一直影响至今。宋代哲学家程伊川说过:“冲漠无朕(天地未判时的宇宙原始状态),而万象昭然已具。”昭然万象以冲漠无朕(天地未判时的宇宙原始状态)为基础,使实中有虚、虚中生实,空外余波,袅袅不绝,“无画处皆成妙境”(笪重光语),这便是中国画在对意境美的追求中最不可言传的精神所在。

In art history, since ancient times are two completely different performance: a realistic reproduction of the objective world of art mainly, it to Western classical paintings as representatives; performance is a subjective mood and emotion as romantic, expressive art. Chinese painting is the basic feature of the later. Romantic, expressive painting, as early as the Kingdoms Period (475-221 B.C.) Chu tomb paintings (People Kui picture) and the Western Han Dynasty Mawangdui banner drawing has been show the initial symptoms Warring. Since the beginning of the Tang dynasty literati painting, Chinese painting is more emphasis on Use images emotion Express, the use of painting to express the expression of music. "Painting to the shape, see neighbors and children (if the painting painted" shape "and whether good or bad, his insight, and like other children)" Su Shi is also summed up the sages who practice the art of. It can exist, and has strong vitality, the text has been praised for painting. The reason is, cannot do without in the void China philosophy of the universe (Lao Tzu "was born in all things, from nothing") under the influence of the eternal pursuit of poetic spirit and artist of poetic form appearance. Indeed, the concept of Chinese painting is to grasp the spirit of Chinese art, grasp the quality of Chinese art poetry characteristics, only to withstand the test of time and wind, and has been affected so far. The Song Dynasty philosopher Cheng Yichuan said: "Primitive universe (world is not sentenced the original state, and has been Zhaoran Vientiane)." Zhaoran Vientiane Primitive universe (world is not sentenced the original state) based the virtual and virtual reality in the air, Yu Bo, "No painting all Niaoniao. Into Wonderland (Da Zhongguang), which is the most Chinese painting in the pursuit of artistic beauty can only be sensed. Spirit.

3、              传说、典故、神话

3,                legends, allusions, myths

①  考画院的传说
中国画十分讲究“藏”与“露”的关系,特别讲究如何“藏”的韵味。宋代的皇帝赵佶(徽宗)虽不善治国以至“靖康之耻”,他却能书善画,诗词功夫也非同一般;他自创“瘦金体”的书法和形象细腻的画鸟画流传至今,堪称一代大师。据说宋代的考宫廷画师时出了这样的几道题:“踏花归去马蹄香”、“深山藏古寺”、“万绿丛中一点红”。
平庸的画师们将“踏花归去马蹄香”的画面表现为:一匹飞驰的骏马,跑过花园……;将“深山藏古寺” 的画面表现为:残锈班驳的佛堂被高耸云天、粗壮的古榕树所“半遮半现” ……将“万绿丛中一点红” 的画面表现为:一片绿茵茵的杂树林里,一枝紫红色的美人蕉在一枝独绣地绽放……。
应考画师夏珪将“踏花归去马蹄香”画为:初雨天晴,林间小道上,由远及近、稀稀地零落一行马蹄印;在最近的马蹄印上有三只蜜蜂,两只在蹄印上盘旋准备采蜜,而另一只沿着“香路”一直向前飞去……;在“深山藏古寺”中,他将画面画成:在飞岩绝壁、蜿蜒的石矶小道上两名步履蹒跚的老和尚,正吃力地抬着一桶水向山上走去,一旁是云雾缭绕的林海……;而在“万绿丛中一点红”的画面是:在一望无垠的绿色丛林与稻田间,一位紫衣少女双手分别拎着给亲人送午餐的饭篮与陶瓦罐;那迎面拂面而来的山风,吹动着紫衣显现少女婀娜的身影,吹开少女的乌发露出美丽的脸庞——蛾眉凤眼、粉腮朱唇,透出春的气息……。夏珪终因很好地处理了“藏”与“露”的关系而考上了画师。即:“踏花归去马蹄香”、“深山藏古寺”分别隐藏了 “马”与“古寺”;第一:用“马蹄印”来表现马,用蜜蜂来反映画面的主题——香;第二:用了“两名步履蹒跚的老和尚”来表现这个藏着的“古寺”,达到了“含而不露、回味无穷”之目的。而在“万绿丛中一点红”中通过“绿色丛林”与“紫衣少女”刻画,露出了大自然和人间两种“春意”。

①   The academy examination legend
Chinese painting is very particular about the "hidden" and "dew" of the relationship, especially pay attention to how the "Tibetan" charm. The Song Dynasty emperor Zhao Ji (Huizong) although the country and the poor "Jingkang the shame", he was able to book good painting, poetry is extraordinary effort; he created "style of Chinese calligraphy originated by Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty (Zhao Ji), characterized by slim yet sturdy strokes" the image of delicate calligraphy and painting bird painting spread so far, may be called a generation of master. It is said that the Song Dynasty court painter made a few test questions like: "Flower guiqu horseshoe riding", "the Old Temple The mountains hide" and "a single red flower in the midst of thick foliage".
Mediocre portrait masters will "Flower guiqu horseshoe riding" for the screen performance: a speeding horse, running across the garden...... "The Old Temple; The mountains hide" for the screen performance: Residual rust Banbo Towering into the sky, the temple was thick ancient banyan tree "Half cover Half now"...... "A single red flower in the midst of thick foliage" for the screen performance: a mixed forest green, a purple red canna bloom in a single embroidery.......
An artist Xia GUI will Flower guiqu horseshoe riding "for the painting: the early rain, forest trails, from far and near, thin to scattered line marks; there are three bees in the recent marks, two in the hoof circling for Caimi, and another along the" fragrant Lu always fly forward...... In "the Old Temple; The mountains hide", he painted pictures: the old monk in two teeter flying rocks cliffs, winding the rocky path, trying to carry a bucket of water to go to the mountain, one side is the misty forest...... In "a single; red flower in the midst of thick foliage" the picture is: in the green forest and paddy boundless between a purple dress young girl hands were carrying to relatives to send lunch lunch baskets and pottery jar; the face feels to mountain breeze, blowing purple show girl graceful figure the girl's hair, blowing open a beautiful face, Crescent crassipes, Pink gills, with the breath of spring....... Xia GUI the end result well with the "Tibet" and "open" and admitted the artist. Namely: "Flower guiqu horseshoe riding", "the Old Temple The mountains hide" hidden "horse" and "Temple"; first use "Hoof print" to show horses, bees to reflect the subject of the picture - incense; second: the "two Teeter of the old monk" to the performance of this hidden "Temple", to "contain but not exposed, to lead a person to endless aftertastes". In the "a single red flower in the midst of thick foliage" in the "green forest" and "purple girl" depiction of human nature and exposed the two spring".

②  人们喜爱的“吉祥画”

如:《三羊开泰》、《福寿图》、《前程万里》、《吉利全家》、《上山虎》等。
⑴《三羊开泰》:癸未年已至,又是一个羊年。羊通“祥”,又与“阳”谐音,故羊儿历来被人们视为吉祥的象征。三只羊在—起寓意“三阳开泰”,取冬去春来,阴消阳长之意。故每逢羊年,画家中以此为题材作画者甚多。 (寓意:喜则升阳古人说,喜则阳气生。只生欢喜不生愁的人,在古代就被称为神仙。喜是人生的一种大境界,能够保持一颗欢喜心,对身体的滋养是比吃什么灵丹妙药都管用的。)



⑵《福寿图》:画面上都是吉祥的象征——长寿的绶带鸟(绶:与寿谐音,即:长寿的意思。)、寿桃、仙果(佛手)等。



⑶《前程万里》:古钱、拂尘、万年青、李子(一种水果),摆在“乳臭未干”的孩子身边;以示“前程万里”。(钱:“前” 的谐音字、尘“程” 的谐音字、李“里” 的谐音字。)




②      The lucky painting"
Such as: "Three Rams Bliss", "Blessing Longevity", "His future will be great", "Geely family", "Geely tiger" and so on, "Bring".
⑴    The "Three Rams Bring Bliss": ram has to, but also a year of the goat. Sheep - "Xiang", and "Yang" homophonic, Yanger has always been regarded as a symbol of good luck. Three sheep in the meaning of "Three Rams Bliss", take the winter to spring, Yin deficiency Yang growth meaning and. Therefore, during the year of the sheep, the painter takes this as the theme of painting a lot. (meaning: joyful, Sun Microsystems, this is the ancients said, joyful Yang of health. Only those who are born without joy or sorrow are called gods in ancient times. Joyful is a kind of realm of life, to keep a happy heart, is effective than what to eat for the body to nourish a ready-made panacea.)
⑵  The "Blessing Longevity": the screen is emblem, of good fortune Paradise Flycatcher (Shou: longevity and Sau euphony, namely: the meaning of longevity.) , Peach-Shaped Mantou, Ambrosia (fingered citron), etc..
⑶  The "His future career will be great": old coins, whisk, evergreen, plum (a fruit), placed in the "young and ignorant" children who show a promising future "". (money: "before" homophonic words, "Cheng dust" homophonic words, "Li" homophonic words.)

⑷中国山水诗意画——《吉利全家》
【原诗】小鸡竦而待,贵似荔枝来。利爪削黄金,云林谢家宅。   规格:68×136 ㎝     纸本设色    2012年10月创作
  


【欣赏】小鸡在父母的呵护下,茁壮成长;这一天,小鸡们“毕恭毕敬”地等待着父母喂食。不一会,父母把小鸡们带到荔枝树下,那些珍贵的荔枝好像知道它们要来,稀疏的散落在地上;父母用大而有力的利爪削开那些黄金般珍贵的荔枝,给小鸡们品尝……;在云林深处,“旧时王谢”家宅里,小鸡一家无忧无虑地生活着。
⑸《上山虎》:上山虎寓意做任何都是“上升、吉利、威猛”等;故,做官、做生意(特别是做股票)的都要“讨个吉利”,因此,“上山虎”(如:本文介绍的《雪谷传啸声》)就是中国百姓所喜爱的。
  


⑷  The Chinese poetic landscape painting - "auspicious family"
The chick to wait her, Waiting for parents to feed under the lychee tree the (neck). The chicken claws open gold litchi the chickens, The clouds, trees are with ordinary but happy Feed home covered cut parents. Specification: 68 * 136 cm of paper colors created in October 2012
[appreciation] chicken in the care of their parents, to thrive; this day, the chicks "waiting for parents to feed reverent and respectful.". After a while, the chicks with parents to lychee trees, those precious lychee seems to know they are coming, sparsely scattered on the ground; the parents with large and powerful claws cut those golden lychee, to taste the chicks...... ; in the depths of Yunlin, "old Wang Xie" home chicken, a light of heart from care to live.
⑸  The "Geely tiger": the meaning of any tiger is "rising, Geely, the mighty"; therefore, an official, to do business (especially the stock) are "luck", therefore, "Tiger Mountain" (such as: the "Snow Valley Tiger roar") is in people in love.

③  典故

⑴刘奎龄的《忠孝节义》
以典故入画的代表性——《忠孝节义》中,刘奎龄仍旧采取自己最熟悉的动物题材来表现中华民族的四种传统美德-犬在我们的传统中—一向是“忠”的代表;而羊与“孝”也有着紧密的联系,《增广贤文》中有“羊有跪乳之恩,鸦有反哺之义”的句子,羊是吉祥的动物,吃奶时又都是跪着,因此被古人视为感恩、孝顺的象征;牛吃苦耐劳,在古人心目中地位很高,至今很多地方仍流传着各种“义牛传”的故事,因而用牛来作“义”的代名词也很贴切;至于刘奎龄用马来表现“节”则源于鸦片战争中的一个故事。1841年1月,英军攻占了虎门海口的沙角炮台,守将陈连升牺牲,他的战马被英军掳至香港。这匹马性情刚烈,英人喂之不食,骑之则摔,近之则踢,惟独华人手捧食料喂它,它才肯吃,只要一提到陈连升的名字它就流泪不止。有人说要把它送回虎门,它便摇尾相随,但它最终还是未能回去。后来它日夜在高岗上不吃不眠,望北而嘶,最终饿死在香港,被誉为“节马”。当时很多人都作了“节马诗”、“节马图”来纪念它。(刘奎龄(1885—1967),现代画家。字耀辰,天津人。曾任中国美术家协会天津分会副主席。他善画动物、花鸟,尤以狮虎见长,此外也能作山水人物。《忠孝节义》四屏条的名字很容易让人认为是人物画。)



③        literary quotation
⑴  "Liu Kuiling's" Loyalty, filial piety, chastity and righteousness "
On behalf of: "Loyalty, filial piety chastity and righteousness story painting," Liu Kuiling, still take their most familiar animal theme to represent four traditional virtues of the Chinese nation - dogs in our tradition, has always been "loyalty"; sheep and "filial piety" is closely "To the general, public Behave oneself Canonical essay" in the "Sheep have the grace to kneel, crow has feedback of righteousness" in the sentence, the sheep is an auspicious animal, when infants are kneeling, it was viewed as a symbol of gratitude and filial piety; Endure hardships and be capable of cattle hard work, very high status in the eyes of the ancients, has many places are still spread all kinds of "cattle justice" story, synonymous and cattle to "justice" is also appropriate for Liu Kuiling; The "performance" of the Malay age is derived from a story in the Opium war. In January 1841, the British captured Humen Haikou Shajiao fortress, Chen Liansheng will keep his sacrifice, the horse was taken to the British Hongkong. This horse temperament staunch, British people do not eat feed, Mount a horse and fall off, Approaching horse Kicking, but with Chinese food to feed it, it will eat, as long as the mention of Chen Liansheng's name it tears. Some people say that to send it back to Humen, it will shake tail, but it still can not go back. Later in the evening it did not take on Mian Gao Gang, Wang North Sima, eventually starve to death in Hongkong, known as "Ma day". At that time many people have made a "Poetry Festival Ma," "day map" to commemorate it. Liu Kuiling (1885 - 1967), modern painter. Word Yao Chen, Tianjin people. Former vice chairman of Tianjin branch of Chinese artists association. He is good at painting animal, flowers and birds, especially Shihu Kyo, in addition to landscape character. "Loyalty, filial piety, chastity and righteousness four" the name of a set of hanging scrolls people think it is very easy to figure painting).

⑵《八骏图》与陈英泉
以画明志的代表性——《八骏图》。1945年暮春,“甲午同庚会”中的著名画家郑午昌、汪亚尘、吴湖帆、杨清磬,戏剧家梅兰芳、周信芳、洪警铃,文学家范烟桥等八人按“周穆王有八骏”的故事,约请当时海上画坛八位画马高手合作《八骏图》,由“甲午同庚会”八位同仁在图上签署,以表心迹。参与创作此图的画家为:熊松泉、赵敬予、戈湘岚、殷梓湘、谢之光、谢碧月、陈英泉、徐韶九。他们各绘一骏,以象征“甲午同庚会”中八位志士。此图由书法家马公愚题签。题跋者尚有书画家王福庵、张大干、冯超然、沈尹默、张谷年、潘勤孟及吴稚晖、李石曾等一大批名流。此图是—幅“图存八骏,志励千秋”的艺术珍品。



这件《八骏图》,曾在1985年《西泠艺报》创刊号上刊载过,这件事遂在当代艺苑引为美谈。然而,郑午昌等八位名士俱已作占,画马高手熊松泉、赵敬予、戈湘岚、殷梓湘、谢之光五位也已相继去世,其中的谢碧月、徐韶九两位现在的情况不明,倘若健在的话,当也均是耄耋老人了。所幸其中的陈英泉先生至今仍活跃在姑苏艺苑。

⑵  The "Eight fine horses" and Chen Yingquan
On behalf of Eight fine horses -- "Ming" painting. In the late spring of 1945, "the 1894 g" of the famous painter Zheng Wuchang, Wang Yachen, Wu Hufan, Yang Qingqing, Mei Lanfang, Zhou Xinfang, Hong dramatists bell, literary van Bridge eight people to smoke "Mu Wang Bajun" story, then invite eight horses in the high sea painting "Eight fine horses" in military cooperation, signed by "the 1894 g" eight colleagues on the map, in their minds. Participate in the creation of this figure painter: Xiong Songquan, Zhao Jingyu, Ge Xianglan, Yin Zixiang, Xie Zhiguang, Xie Biyue, Xu Shaojiu, Chen Yingquan. They painted a horse, with a symbol of "the 1894 g" in the eight person. This picture is composed of calligrapher Ma Gongyu name. Were the painter Wang Fuan, and Zhang Dagan, Feng Chaoran, Shen Yinmo, Zhang Gunian, Pan Qinmeng and Wu Zhihui, Li Shi had a large number of celebrities. This figure is a "Picture eight horse, Ambition inspired Millennium" art treasures.
This "Eight fine horses", was published in 1985 on the first issue "Xiling arts newspaper", it was cited as well in contemporary art. However, Zheng Wuchang and other eight celebrities have made for Xiong Songquan, Zhao Jingyu, Ma painting master, Ge Xianglan, Yin Zixiang, Xie Zhiguang five have died, including Xie Biyue and Xu Shaojiu two are unknown, if alive, when are old. Fortunately, one of Mr. Chen Yingquan is still active in Suzhou yiyuan.

待续

To be continued



顾绍骅 发表于 2017-3-3 16:41:41
三、     笔墨特点        
我国素有“书画同源”之说;不管书与画,所用的工具是相同的。行笔、运笔等技巧相同,中国书法是“以线造字”,而中国画历来是“以线造型”(以线条为主要造型手段)。尽管中国画的革新以色彩为突破口,并出现了大量的以色彩为主的现代作品,但是线条仍然起着重要的作用,传统绘画线条高超的表现技巧以及优秀的文化内涵,已经被继承下来并有所创新。因此,研究中国画线条的历史发展轨迹,使我们对中国画线条的继承与创新有一个更清醒的认识是十分重要的。中国画线条的突出特点是富有表现性,它是至今多数国家绘画艺术中的线条所难以企及的。
Three, Chinese ink features
Our country is known as "calligraphy and painting homology" said; regardless of books and paintings, the tools used are the same. Bank, Yunbi skills such as the same, Chinese calligraphy is "Line defined", and China painting has always been a "Line modeling" (lines as the main means of modeling). Although Chinese painting innovation in color as a breakthrough point, and there are a lot of color mainly to the modern works, but the line still plays an important role in the traditional painting lines superb performance skills and excellent cultural connotation, has been inherited and innovation. Therefore, it is very important to study the history of Chinese painting lines, so that we can have a clearer understanding of the inheritance and innovation of Chinese painting lines. Chinese line painting is the prominent characteristics of the rich performance, it is so far the majority of countries in the art of painting the lines are elusive.
善于“牵着线条去散步”的德国现代主义大师克利说:“笔迹最关键的是表现而不是工整。请考虑—下中国人的做法。”中国画线条表现性技法的成熟虽然远远早于西方,但它不是一步到位的,而是经历了漫长的发展。不动的线到飞动的线。人类在原始社会所创造的线条,主要是直线、横线和圆线。由于使用这些线,人们就可以在画面上画出对象的结构,传达出所要传递的信息。此后随着文明的发展,人们又感到直线、横线和圆线比较呆板、僵硬和缺少动感和生命力,于是创造了一些波状的、粗细不匀的、富有张力的线条。我们从周代青铜器《饕餮簋》、  


汉代画像石拓片中可以看出,

中国画线条从公元前十世纪开始就有了巨大的发展:从平实的线逐渐变为富有生命力的飞动的线条。这种变化是怎样表现出来的呢?
Good at holding line to walk, "the German modernist master Klee said:" the handwriting is the most crucial performance. Please consider the Chinese practice." Although the performance of Chinese painting lines is far more mature than in the west, but it is not a step in place, but experienced a long development. Fixed line to move the line. In primitive society created by human line, is a straight line, horizontal line and the circle line. As a result of the use of these lines, people can draw on the screen structure of the object, to convey the information to be conveyed. Then with the development of civilization, people also feel a straight line, horizontal line and the circle line relatively inflexible, rigid and lack of dynamism and vitality, and creates a number of wavy, uneven thickness, tension lines. We are from the "Gluttonous feasts", Zhou Dai bronze of the Han Dynasty "Han portrait stone rubbings" can be seen in the line China painting began to have great development from tenth Century BC: from the plain line gradually becomes full of vitality of the flying lines. How does this change come about?
这要从线条的位置、运动方向、张力等方面来研究。首先,这两件作品中出现了波状线(亦称蛇形线)。这种线条的位置与方向不像直线那样固定,它好象是在摆动而且活动的方向不确定,这样在视觉上就给人以动感。其次,这两件作品中的线条不像以往直线那样平直均匀,而是有粗有细,由此可知,作者在运笔时所用的力度和速度是不均匀的。这种力度与速度的不同,就表现出线条在空间与时间上的运动,因而给人以动感;再次,我们从饕餮头部的向相反方向夸张性运动的线条中,从马的四条腿最大限度地向不同方向伸展的姿态中可以看出,作者企图通过线条的巨大张力来表现饕餮、马的奋进,使青铜器、石头上的动物给人视觉上强烈的运动感。正是通过这种运动感,才使作品表现出极强的生命活力。从轮廓线到表现结构、空间、亮度的条。有些人常用“单线平涂”来概括中国画的特点,这是不确切的。单线平涂是人类早期绘画的共同特点。自汉末后,中国画的特点就难以用单线平涂来说明了。轮廓线尉旨所画物象的周边线。它面对的是所画物象与它所处空间的关系,因此它只是把某一物象从大的背景中分离出来,而无法显现这一物象的内部结构和光分布。自从中国画家创造了独特的皴法、描法以及擦染之后,对物象内部结构与光分布的处理,就不是借助透视法、明暗法,而是以本民族独特的表现形式描绘出来。从五代时董源的《潇湘图》中,我们可以看到中国画线条的发展变化:
This is from the line position, direction of movement, tension and other aspects of the study. First of all, a wavy line two works (also known as serpentine line). The position and direction of the line is not as fixed as a straight line, it seems to be in the swing and the direction of the movement is not sure, so visually gives a dynamic. Secondly, the lines of the two works are not as straight and uniform as the straight lines in the past, but they are thick and thin, which shows that the strength and speed of the author in the use of the pen is uneven. The intensity and speed of different lines on the show in space and time on the campaign, which gives a dynamic; thirdly, we head in the opposite direction from the gluttonous exaggerated lines of motion, from the maximum four legged horse stretched in different directions in attitude can be seen, the author attempts to to show the enormous tension line gluttonous, horse endeavour, bronze, stone the animal gave a strong visual sense of movement. It is through this sense of movement that the works show a strong vitality. From the outline to the performance structure, space, brightness of the bar. Some people often use "Single line flat" to summarize the characteristics of Chinese painting, which is not accurate. Single line flat painting is a common feature of human early painting. Since the late Han Dynasty, the characteristics of China paintings will be difficult to use Single line flat to explain. Contour Wei purpose by painting images of the surrounding line. It is the face of the painting and the relationship between the object space, so it is a separate object from the background, to show the internal structure of this object and light distribution. Since China artists to create a unique Cunfa, scanning method and rub into, the internal structure and optical images of the distribution, not with perspective, shading, but to form the nation's unique description. From the five generation Dong Yuan "Xiaoxiang map", we can see the development and change of Chinese painting line:
五代时董源的《潇湘图》(934~960)



此画用轮廓线界定了山的空间位置和整体走势后,对山体内的各个组成部分,均以长披麻皴线条加点来表现。众多披麻皴线条与点的有序排列,一方面刻画出山岭在一定光线照耀下的皴纹,另一方面表现出山体内各个部分的有机组合,从而有效地描绘了山体的结构。这些表现结构的皴线、点与轮廓线融合后,山的雄姿秀态就尽眼底了。
The five generation Dong Yuan "Xiaoxiang map" (934 ~ 960)
It defines the mountain space location and the overall trend with the contour line, each of the mountains in part by Long pimacun to add the line. Ordered many pimacun lines and points, one hand depicts the mountain in light of the Texture, on the other hand, from the organic combination of various parts of the body, so as to effectively describe the structure of the mountain. Cun performance of these lines, points and contour integration, Hill Xiongzi show on the state of the fundus.
此画没有用透视法照样画出物象的空间和距离,是由于画家灵活运用了皴线和点。画面的远景部分,画家用的是较短、较小、较淡的皴线与点;近景部分,则用较长、较浓的皴点;山体背阴的部分,用较浓的短线与点;各个山头用重迭法画出,画家用这些方法表现出山体的纵深感。有人认为这种方法没有透视法科学准确。当然,按透视法画出的物象显很逼真。但是,格式塔心理学家指出:透视法的准确是建立在透视缩短与透视变形基础上的,它仅仅是在二维空间表现三维幻觉,是对眼睛的“欺骗”。因此,我们不必用透视法来苛求用皴、点与重迭法来表现物象空间距离——“深度”的中国画。
此画没有用明暗法也画出了物象的光分布。这是因为画家利用皴线有疏有密的排列与部分留自来描绘山体的明部与暗部。显然,这幅画似乎没有固定光源和合乎比例的明暗层次(亮度梯度),但这样的作品并不像有人说的只强调线条韵律不要光,而是采用垂直光分布、正面光(正面留白)来表现光亮,背面、侧面用密集的短皴与点来表现。这种特殊的正面光与明暗分布法,源于道家哲学“万物负阴而抱阳(或者是影响万物自身的因素就是阴阳的调和问题)”的观点。董源之后,画家们又把皴与擦融为一体,进一步表现了物象的明暗层次,色彩的渲染对用皴擦表现光分布也起了辅助作用。这样在表现光的过程中,各种线条一直起着主导作用。董源作品中的线条组合,不仅表现了物象的光分布,而且表现了空气的湿度——南方群山的华滋湿润、苍茫葱郁。这是在西洋画中难以见到的。
It does not use the same perspective to draw images of space and distance, is due to the painter Cracked line and flexibility in the use of the point. The vision part of the screen, the painter used Cracked line and shorter, smaller, lighter; close range, with a long, thick shade of the mountain cracked; part, with short and thick; all the hills with overlap method to draw, the artists use these methods show the mountain feeling of depth. Some people think this method is not scientific and accurate. Of course, according to the perspective of the images painted in very realistic. However, the Gestalt psychologists point out that the accuracy of perspective is based on the perspective of the perspective and the perspective of deformation, it is only in the two-dimensional space of three-dimensional illusion, is the eye of the "deception". Therefore, we do not have to use perspective to expect with Cun, the points of overlap and show images from space - the "depth" of the Chinese painting.
This painting is of no use to draw the shades of images of light distribution. This is because the artists use Cracked line there is a sparse arrangement with the dense part of the mountain and the darker left unsolicited depict. Obviously, this picture seems to have no fixed source and proportionate shades (Luminance gradient), but this is not someone that works only emphasize the rhythm of lines do not light, but the vertical distribution of light, positive light (The paper is blank) to express the light back and the side surface with short and dense strokes point performance. This special positive light and light distribution, derived from the Taoist philosophy, "All things are and Yang (or the influence of all things is the factor of the harmony of yin and Yang"). After Dong Yuan, the painters and the Chapped and wipe integration, further demonstrated the shades images, the color rendering performance of Chapped and wipe distribution also played a supporting role. So in the light of the process, a variety of lines has been playing a leading role. Dong Yuan works in the combination of lines, not only the distribution of images of light, and the performance of the China moist Lush Cangmang, the southern mountains air humidity. It's hard to see in Western painting.
从”存形”的线条到抒情的线条。在唐代以前,中国画以反映社会生活,描绘明君、忠臣、烈士、贞女等人物为主。在留下历史人物真容方面,绘画优于其它著作,所以陆机说:“存形莫善于画。(表述事物的形体的,最好的办法是画画,没有比画画更好的了)”习附(学习这样)的绘画线条功能主要在服务于“存形(保存形状)”,即真实描绘客观对象。
Lyrical lines of "Performance shape" to the Lyric line. Before the Tang Dynasty, Chinese painting to reflect the social life, depicting wise monarch, official loyal his sovereign, Martyr, Virgin and other personage based. After leaving the true historical figures, the painting is superior to other works, so Lu Ji said: "Performance shape The best way is to draw. (describe the shape of things, the best way is to draw, no better than a draw) "(learning) the habit of painting lines in service at the main" Performance shape (save shape) ", namely realdescription objective object.
     自从宋(960—1279年)、元(1271年—1368年)以后,中国画由以人物为主,逐步转为以山水、花鸟为主,由反映社会生活、描绘历史与现实人物为主,转向以描绘自然景物来折射社会生活,抒发画家感情为主。为了服从这一目的,画家们对线条作了大胆的革新,创造了具有独立审美价值的抒情线条。这种抒情线条与写实性线条的主要差别在以下两个方面。第一、抒情线条特别重视线条的自身张力。所谓张力,简而言之,就是一种相反相成的力。线条张力可分组合张力与自身张力两种。顾恺之仅用横线条与倾斜卷曲的线条组合,就刻画出了人物的形貌与动态。然而他用的这种线条均匀细长,自身并无明显张力。
Since the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279) (1271 - 1368), yuan, Chinese painted by the main characters, and gradually turned to landscapes, flowers and birds mainly, by the reflection of social life, depicting the history and reality of the main characters, to describing the natural scenery to reflect social life, express feelings of painting. In order to comply with this goal, painters have made bold innovations to the line, creating an independent aesthetic value of Lyrical lines. The main difference between the Lyrical lines and realistic lines in the following two aspects. First, Lyrical lines special emphasis on the line of tension. The so-called tension, in short, is a kind of both opposite and complementary force. Line tension can be divided into two kinds of tension and tension. Gu kaizhi only horizontal lines and tilt curly lines portfolio, depicts a figure on the morphology and dynamics. However, he used this line is long and thin, there is no obvious tension.
梁楷的《六祖斫竹图》、

   倪云林的《紫芝山房图》、

华岩的《金谷园图》等,  


就与顾恺之的线条不同了,其线条借鉴了书法线条的特点,自身具有明显的张力。画家在画线条时,不仅像书法家那“欲左先右”、“欲上先下”,而且要使线条有虚有实、有曲有直、有浓有淡、有轻有重、有粗有细、有断有续、有行有留等等。把以前平直、均匀、细韧的线条变得曲折顿挫、千姿百态,极富情致。画家复杂多变的情感,借助这种多姿多变的线条得到了充分的宣泄。这正是中国画线条发展到高级阶段所呈现的奥秘与难以企及之处,它是几十个画家共同创造的成果。
Liang Kai's "Liuzu Cut the bamboo Painting", liuzu Zhuo Ni Yunlin "Rosie real Painting", Hua mountain rock "Jinguyuan Painting" etc., and the line is different from the line, the line drawing on the characteristics of the calligraphy line, its own obvious tension. The painter in the painting lines, not only like that "Towards the left before's" right ",towards upper  First down", and to make the line, does a song straight, thick with short, light weight, coarse and fine, there have continued off and will stay there, etc.. The previous straight, uniform, fine lines become tough duncuo twists and turns, full of interest in different poses and with different expressions. The painter's complex and changeable emotion, with the help of this changeable line, has been fully vented. This is the mystery of China painting lines to the advanced stage of development and it is difficult to reach in, dozens of artists work together to create results.
第二、抒情线条并不是自然状态的线条,而是有笔法的线条。中国画笔法主要是指用笔方法。它是中国画的另一个重要奥秘。中国画笔法,除了大家熟知的不同于西洋画的执笔法之外,最值得重视的是运笔法,而且不同类型的线条有不同的运笔法。运笔法也就是笔锋接触纸面时怎样运行的方法,它有多种形式,大体上可分为空间运动形式与时间运动形式。不同的轮廓线,不同的皴法、描法,其线条的空间与时间运动形式是不相同的。空间运动形式有几十种,主要是提按、旋转(绞转)、平动、摆动、从容流行等。时间运动形式也有多种,主要是疾迟(包括快速、中速、慢速)、行留、节奏、涩行与跳动等。中国画家自从掌握了这种笔法后,不仅能“牵着线条去散步”,而且能凭借它翱翔于艺术的王国,刻画各种物象,抒发复杂情感,表现不同个性。这种笔法正被现代画家继承、发展,具有很强的生命力。



Second, the lyric line is not the natural state lines, but a technique of the lines. Chinese brushwork painting mainly refers to a pen method. It is another Chinese painting Important mystery. China style painting, in addition to the written law known as the western painting is different from the most worthy of attention is the transport technique, but also different types of lines have different Yunbi law. Yunbi law is how to run the Bifeng contact paper, it has a variety of forms, can be divided into space and time form of sports movement form. Different contour lines, different Texturing methods, tracing method, the line of space and time movement is not the same. The spatial form of dozens of sports, mainly to the rotation (able to), move, swing, leisurely fashion. Time has a variety of movement forms, mainly late disease (including fast, medium and slow), to stay the pace, such as Shibuya bank and the beating. China painter since mastered the technique, not only can the holding line to walk, but also by virtue of its flying in the realm of art, depicting various images, complex feelings, different personality. This technique is being modern painter inheritance and development, has the very strong vitality.
现代中国画中的线条。中国画线条经过宋、元、明、清众多画家的创造,达到新的高度。然而艺无止境,随着时代的前进,人们审美能力的提高,中国画线条仍在发展。最近几十年,特别是最近十几年,不少现代中国画家在继承前人技法的基础上,创造了许多前无古人的新线条。
Lines in modern Chinese painting. Chinese painting lines through the song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the creation of many artists to reach a new height. However, art endless, along with the progress of the times, people's aesthetic ability, Chinese painting lines are still developing. In recent decades, especially in recent years, many modern Chinese painters in succession on the basis of previous techniques, has created many new lines with no predecessors.
例如,李可染创造了深邃含蓄的“金错刀式”的线条;朱屺瞻创造厂老辣雄健的“铁干银钩式”的线条;刘文西创造了长于描绘北方人物古朴刚劲的线条;黄永玉创造了曲折多姿的“不连贯”线条;吴冠中创造了极富韵律美的与点分离的长线条;黄胄创造了具有力度美的近似面的宽线条;周韶华创造了线与面、线与色混融一体的具有面的效果的线条;富中奇创造了具有装饰美的表现乡土情结的线条;邱笑秋、宋雨桂等创造了以色彩笔触与水墨线条相融合的新线条等等。这些线条的创造,丰富了中国画的表现力与抒情功能。关注绘画艺术本体中点、线、面、笔墨等抽象的艺术形式;关注绘画空间上的模糊性所引发的观众的想象与再创造。因而,中国传统绘画艺术具有象征、写意、表现的基本特征。以想象真实代替视觉真实是它有别于西方古典写实性艺术的特征,也是中国画诗意化的体现方式。在观察与表现手法上,中国画“外师造化,中得心源(向大自然学习,总结出属于自己的方法)”(张躁语)。并不是完全照抄模仿自然的客观物象,而是加入了创造者很强的主观色彩,即在造化自然的基础上,有所思想,有所寄意。  当前,中国画家正在越来越多地使用墨彩与色彩,全色彩“没骨画”得到了长足的发展。但是,线条并没有被削弱,更不会消失,而是在不断创新中形成新的形态、获得新的生命力,显现出更有时代特点的东方绘画韵味。




For example, Li Keran created a profound implication of "the wrong knife style" lines; Zhu Qizhan plant LaoLa Xiongjian create the "iron stem Yingou" lines; Liu Wenxi created good at describing the north of the ancient lines Gangjin; Huang Yongyu created a variety of twists and turns "incoherent" lines; Wu Guanzhong created a beautiful rhythm separation points and the long lines; Huang Zhou has created a beauty of the strength of the approximate width of the lines; Zhou Shaohua created the Line and surface, Line and color Mixing and melting with the results of the line; Fu Zhongqi has created a decorative beauty on the performance of the native complex line; Qiu Xiaoqiu and Song Yugui created the color strokes and ink lines of the integration of new lines and so on. The creation of these lines enriches the expressive power and lyric function of Chinese painting. Pay attention to the abstract art form such as the middle point, line, surface and Chinese ink of the painting art; pay attention to the imagination and re creation of the audience caused by the fuzziness in the painting space. Therefore, the traditional Chinese painting art has the basic characteristics of symbol, freehand brushwork and . It is not only different from the western classical realistic art, but also the embodiment of Chinese painting in the way of imagination. In the observation and performance practices, the Chinese painting "The study nature of, Get own knowledge (learning from nature, summed up their own method)" (Zhang Zao). Not simply copy the object imitation of nature, but joined the creators of the highly subjective, that is some thought natural on the basis of fortune, Have, some, meaning. Currently, Chinese painters are increasingly using ink color and color, full-color painting without but outline forms achieved by washes of ink and color has been a considerable development. However, the lines have not been weakened, but will not disappear, but in the continuous innovation in the formation of a new form, to obtain new vitality, showing a more contemporary characteristics of Oriental painting charm.


待续


To be continued



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