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双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)

发布者: 顾绍骅 | 发布时间: 2017-2-25 11:47| 查看数: 1934| 评论数: 6|帖子模式

双语版·中国书画作品欣赏之我见——中国画(今译)一



"Enjoy" China works of calligraphy and painting my views - China painting (translation)

                                                                                                                               顾绍骅著

Gu Shaohua write



对中国画审美特征的理解会敏锐我们的直觉,欣赏时再结合想象,方能领略作品的文化背景和气韵、神韵、陶冶情怀。中国的书法与绘画是在一种特殊而古老的文明环境中产生的。几千年来,它们曾走过了从发端、童稚、成熟到升华变化,从实用到艺术化的漫长路程。毫不夸张地说,书与画是华夏民族的聪慧与创造力最集中的表现之一,并在某种意义上标志着华夏文明在古典文化艺术领域的最高水准。

The understanding of the aesthetic characteristics of Chinese painting will be keen on our intuition, when combined with the imagination, to appreciate the cultural background of the work and artistic conception, Romantic charm, Cultivate feelings. Chinese calligraphy and painting are produced in a special and ancient civilization. For thousands of years, they have gone through from the beginning, childish and mature to the sublimation of change, from the practical to the art of the long journey. It is no exaggeration to say that Chinese calligraphy and painting is one of the most concentrated expression of the Chinese nation's wisdom and creativity, and marks in a sense Chinese Civilization Classical culture in the field of art the highest level.

中国乃至东方世界对宇宙自然的看法,对社会人事的态度,对美与永恒性的追求,都在中国书画里得到了显化,并通过它们而获得了千百万炎黄子孙、东方朋友乃至世界各国朋友的认同。历代那些稚拙的或者雄健的或者秀美的碑帖法书,那些神秘的或灿烂的或淡雅的绘画名品,都是我们民族的精华——书画艺术家们(包括不知名姓的民间艺匠)以审美方式与主客体世界进行心灵对语的形象记录。这种对语有时达到了哲学化的高度,——在“若坐、若行、若飞、若动”的纵横笔画之间,在“有丰致、有缥缈”的笔情墨象之中,蕴含着情思,也体现着“道”,表现着人格乃至对生命宇宙的体验。

Chinese and the eastern world views of the universe's natural, social and personnel on the attitude of beauty and the pursuit of the eternal, in Chinese painting, has been significant, and through them, and access to the millions of Chinese people, Oriental friends and friends around the world agree. All those childish or powerful or beautiful China calligraphy rubbings or copybook, the mysterious or brilliant or elegant paintings of famous, is our national essence of painting and calligraphy artists (including unknown folk artisan) in aesthetic manner and objectivity of the soul of the world to record the image of language. This kind of language sometimes reach a height of philosophy, in the "It is sitting in, like walking, like flying, beating Vertical or like" horizontal strokes, "in the ink pen like Full or Wet strokes, Misty or Dry strokes", which contains emotion thinking, but also embodies the "Imitation or truth, the performance of the personality of the universe and of life experience.

可以说,每幅字、画都凝结着民族与时代的心态,积淀着民族精神的文化层。作为艺术,作为中国人心理意识结晶的书画艺术,就更不待言了。但不是每个人都能够在较高的层次上欣赏书画艺术。它是如此的丰富而悠久,精致而又神妙!要理解与感受神秘的陶绘,狞厉的青铜纹饰,静穆的佛像,意在笔墨之外的文人画和高度抽象、流动的书法点划结构,都需要一定的知识和修养。欣赏中国书画,允许欣赏者持的某种主观态度,这需要情感与想象。需要理性、确切的知识与判断。将二者合而为一,是笔者试图向读者提供的既引导欣赏,又介绍知识的文章。

It can be said that each word, painting are the times of the nation and the state of mind, the accumulation of the national spirit of the cultural layer. As art, as the Chinese people's consciousness of the crystallization of calligraphy and painting art, it is not to be said. But not everyone can appreciate the art of painting and calligraphy at a higher level. It is so rich and long, exquisite and Wonderful! To understand and feel the mysterious Tao painting, Ferocious's Bronze decoration, Solemn Buddha, intended to pen and ink painting and the painting of the highly abstract, the flow of calligraphy point structure, all need a certain amount of knowledge and self-cultivation. Enjoy Chinese and Chinese painting, allowing viewers to hold some kind of subjective attitude, which requires Emotion and imagination calligraphy. Need rational, precise knowledge and judgment. The two is to be made one, the author tries to guide readers of both shows, and on knowledge of the article.

传统中国画以毛笔、水墨、矿物质颜料、绢帛、宣纸等为工具(原料)从表现形式上分工笔画和写意画。人物画强调“传神”,通过对人物面部表情(特别是眼神的刻画)、肢体语言、环境等的表现,达到以形写神、突出人物的内心世界。山水画强调“诗情画意”表现雄壮粗犷或秀丽俊美的山式、云吞雾幕——情景交融的意境创造即:将大自然的美与文人逸趣(中国文化)紧密地糅合在一起,用高远、平远、深远(或合三远)法的结构画面,计白当黑的处理方式。花鸟画则以托物言志、借物抒怀;来赞美生命、歌颂大自然——挥洒“胸臆”。

Chinese traditional painting Writing brush, with ink, mineral pigments, silk silk, Xuan paper as the tools (raw materials) the fine brushwork and freehand brushwork paintings from the form. Figure painting emphasizes "vivid graphic", through the facial expression of the characters (especially the eyes of the characterization), body language, the performance of the environment, to achieve the shape of God, the prominent character of the One's inner world. Landscape painting emphasizes "poetic Chinese painting" Majestic and rough or Beautiful and handsome Wonton fog screen hill, Is a fusion of feelings with the natural setting to create the mood namely: the nature of the beautiful and Literati Yiqu (China Culture) closer together, with High, distance, Parallel, distance. Far reaching (Or put the three methods together) structure picture, treatment of reckon blank as inked. The Use the shape painting of the object to express ambition, Borrow Shuhuai; life to praise, praise of nature, "what is deep in one's with heart “thoughts or feelings deep in; one's heart”.

在笔墨色彩上讲究:1、笔法丰富、有力度,或浸润凝重、或枯涩快疾;或中锋、或逆锋、或侧锋、或拖笔、或散笔。2、墨法多层次的变化(五墨六彩——五墨是指焦、浓、重、淡、清,这是墨阶,如同音乐中的音阶。六彩指黑、白、浓、淡、干、湿,它是绘画中用墨变化的因素。),或积墨、或破墨、或泼墨。3、色彩为随类赋彩等感性色彩,讲求墨气、沉着(色彩以墨骨为主,施以淡彩)并有工笔重彩。总体上追求传统文化(内在的)与以线造型的笔墨意趣(外显的)融合,即:诗情画意和“气韵”、“神韵”的表现。在造型上不拘泥于外形的肖似(逼真),而着重表现物象内在的“气韵”、“神韵”与画家“胸臆”的挥写(抒发)。在构图、透视上的处理有别于西方绘画,以多角度、多视点(移动)的“散点透视”来表现画家的主观意图自由组合空间。那幺我们究竟如何欣赏呢?笔者认为可从以下几个方面去欣赏:中国的历史、文化背景、文学艺术(诗情画意)和笔墨技巧以及中国画色彩的魅力等方面去品味(欣赏)中国画作品。

Pay attention to the Ink color: 1, abundant technique, intensity, or Infiltration solemn, or Dry Fast or Center pen, or Against; the front side tip of the writing, or brush, or drag pen or casual. 2, method the use ink and water multi-level changes (Five ink six color - ink refers to Coke, thick, heavy, light, clear, this is the order of ink, as the scale of music in the scale of of,, of). The six color refers to Black, white, thick, light, dry and wet, which is a factor in painting with ink changes , Or accumulate ink color, Or rid of original ink color, sprinkle Ink color get the. 3, conformity to kind in applying color colors The spirit emphasizes the emotional color, of, ink (Black bone to calm color, with light color) and meticulous. The pursuit of traditional culture in general (internal) and the line shape of the Ink interest (explicit) fusion, namely: Poetic Chinese painting and "artistic conception", "Romantic charm" performance. In the form of Not rigidly adhere to in the same shape (realistic), and images focused on the internal performance of "artistic conception" and "Romantic charm" and "thoughts or feelings deep in artist one's heart" wrote the play (Shu Fa). In the composition, perspective on the treatment is different from western painting, multi angle, multi point of view (mobile) Scattered Perspective to show the subjective intention of the artist's free combination of space. So how do we actually enjoy? The author thinks that to appreciate from the following aspects: Chinese history, cultural background, literature and art (poetic Chinese painting) and China painting color and the painting skills of the charm of the areas to taste (appreciate) China painting works.

一、                          中国画史:

One, China painting History:

中国的绘画艺术,源远流长,波澜壮阔,在世界美术史上形成了最为繁盛而特具风格的绘画体系(越是民族的就越具世界性);蔡元培倡导“美育代宗教”,美术教育始见重视;原属宫廷和权贵秘藏的历代名画,也已纷纷散至民间,继而介绍到国外,引起了世界人士的瞩目赞叹、争相研究,这情形,又反过来刺激着中国的学者,痛感我国近代对于传统艺术研究之不足。

Chinese painting art, has a long history, Surge high and sweep forward, in the world art history form the most prosperous and a special style of painting system (The more the nation the, more cosmopolitan); Cai Yuanpei "Aesthetic education on behalf of advocated religion", art education only to see the palace and the powerful hidden origin; paintings, also have Scattered to folk, then introduced to foreign countries, the world's attention and praise people eager to study this, in turn, stimulates the pain China scholars in China in the past generation for traditional art Lack of research.

考证世界文化发源地:西方为意大利半岛,东方为中国。意大利吸收埃及与中央亚细亚古代文明之素养,启发于希腊、罗马两时代,分布于全欧洲,移植于美洲;中国则采纳美索八达米亚(古希腊人称这个地区为“美索八达米亚”,意即两河之间的土地,所谓两河,是指在亚洲西部今伊拉克境内的底格里斯河和幼发拉底河。这个地区面积不大,大体上相当于现在的伊拉克。)与印度文明之灌溉,汇成东方特殊系统之泉源;沿朝鲜及我国台湾一带流传于琉球、日本诸域,绘画上亦不外此线索。故西方绘画者,以意大利为母地,而东方绘画者,以中国为始祖矣。而中国绘画受中国传统文化(儒家、释家、道家)的影响,特别是“中庸”、“中和”思想——不偏不倚、不左不右;“含而不露”的人文精神;因此,隐涵、博义是其特点;加之其所用之工具、发展之情况等,都与西方绘画的造型、追求、情趣等不大相同。

Textual research on the origin of world culture: the west is the Italy Peninsula and the East is china. Italy absorbed Egypt and Central Asia literacy of ancient civilization, inspired by Greece, Rome two times, distributed in Europe, transplanted to the America; adopt MSO Bada Mia Chinese (the ancient Greeks called this area "MSO Bada Mia", which means the land between the rivers, the rivers, is in Western Asia today in Iraq the Tigris and Euphrates River. The area is small, roughly equivalent to the present. ) and irrigation of India civilization, Huicheng East special source of the system; spread in the region along the Ryukyu, Japan North Korea and China's Taiwan area, but also drawing on this clue. The western painting, with Italy as the parent, and the Oriental painting, to be China for ancestor. The China painting by the traditional culture China (the Confucian, school Buddhism, Taoist school) influence, especially the "The Doctrine of the Mean", "Intermediate benevolence harmony" --, avoid leaning to either side neither left nor right; "humanistic spirit; so Include without revealing, conversational implicature, Broad erudition is its characteristic; in addition, the tools for the development of the situation, with the western style of painting, the pursuit of taste is not the same, etc..

我国自有绘画以来,经古人专心致志的探求,四、五千年间长期的演变和进步,作手名家,人才辈出,你追我赶,且遍布华夏,各发挥一代之光彩。如顾恺之、陆探微、张僧繇、展子虔等都能以画而称为大家;到了唐代,有李思训、王维等成为南北二大派(风格)的代表。之后,继承传统作家如风云涌起,可谓数不胜数。所以说上下数千年的中国绘画史,于叙事上简便起见,大略可分为古代史,上世史,中世史,近世史,四篇,以寻求其变迁推移之痕迹。

Chinese painting painting since the ancient Devote oneself heart and search by soul to, 4~5000 years of evolution and progress for a long time, Painter Famous, painter, and an, ancient in race each other, name for China, the generation of glory. Such as Gu Kaizhi, Lu Tanwei, Zhang sengyao, Zhan ziqian, and so on can be painted and called everyone; to the Tang Dynasty, Li Sixun, Wang Wei and other representatives of the north and south to become the two largest (style) representatives of the. After inheriting the traditional writers such as storm surges, is beyond count. So that thousands of years China in painting history, narrative simplicity, can be roughly divided into Ancient history, Ancient history Part One, medieval history, modern history, four, to seek the change over the traces.

而顾恺之《女史箴图》(《女史箴图》为中国东晋绘画作品,作者顾恺之。原作已佚,现存有唐代摹本,原有12段,因年代久远,

现存《女史箴图》仅剩9段,为绢本,设色,纵24.8厘米、横348.2厘米。此图依据西晋张华《女史箴》一文而作,原文十二节,所画亦为十二段,现存自“冯媛挡熊”至“女史司箴敢告庶姬”共9段。作品注重人物神态的表现,用笔细劲连绵,色彩典丽、秀润。1860年“火烧圆明园”后被掠夺并流失海外,现收藏于大英博物馆。由于英国方面知识欠缺,保管不善,将其拦腰截为两段,并出现了掉渣现象。故宫博物院另藏有宋代摹本,纸本墨色,水平稍逊,而多出樊姬、卫女2段。作品描绘女范事迹,有汉代冯媛以身挡熊,保护汉元帝的故事;有班婕妤拒绝与汉成帝同辇,以防成帝贪恋女色而误朝政的故事等。其余各段都是描写上层妇女应有的道德情感,带有一定的说教性质。虽然作品蕴涵了妇女应当遵守的道德信条,但是对上层妇女梳妆妆扮等日常牛活的描绘,真实而生动地再现了贵族妇女的娇柔、矜持,无论身姿、仪态、服饰都合乎她们的身份和个性。其作品注重人物神态的表现,用笔细劲连绵,色彩明丽、秀润。《女史箴图》中不同身份的宫廷妇女形象,是作者所处时代的妇女生活情景的反映。图中的妇女形象典雅端庄,神情温顺柔和,体现了顾恺之绘画用线的精细绵密,如“春蚕吐丝”,人物形神兼备。)亦尚留存于人间,足以供我们参考。此画曾被记录于《宣和画谱》(《宣和画谱》是北宋宣和(1119~1125)年间由官方主持编撰的宫廷所藏绘画作品的著录著作。全书共20卷,著录宋徽宗时宫廷所藏的魏晋以来历代绘画作品,共计画家231人,作品6396件。按题材分为10门:道释49人,人物33人,宫室4人,番族5人,龙鱼8人,山水41人,畜兽27人,花鸟46人,墨竹12人,蔬果6人。 此书的体例是每门先作叙论,其次是画家评传,包括籍贯、仕履、才具、学养、擅长、故实等,传后再具列作品目及件数。《宣和画谱》产生的时期,正值北宋画院制度最完备,院画创作达到高峰之时,也是最高统治者对历代绘画名作尽力搜罗、库充最富的时期。凭借这种种条件,才成就了这一著作,作为官方之著,理论的创新或许不算多,而其著录之完备,篇幅之大,却不失为巨著,对了解、研究绘画史有不可忽视的功用。)、《米芾画史》(《画史》是一部绘画鉴评作品,又名《米海岳画史》。全书共一卷,北宋米芾撰。《画史》约成书于1101年前后,举其平生所见晋代以来名画(其中亦间有未见者),品评优劣,鉴别真伪,考订谬误,指出风格特点,作者及藏处,甚至间及装裱、印章,亦收进画坛遗事秘闻,颇具资料价值。且由于此书材料多随手拈来,缺乏条理,加以部分文字古奥难解,很难入于上乘的理论、学术著作之列。)、《陈继儒妮古录》(《妮古录》明陈继儒撰。四卷。杂记书画、碑帖、古玩及遗闻轶事。陈继儒是明代著名的书画鉴藏家,富于收藏,精于鉴赏,并且撰写了多部书画著录。本文从多角度去研究陈继儒,包括他的山人身份的考察,《妮古录》的解读,书画鉴藏活动以及书画鉴定和书画创作等方面,以求整体上探讨陈继儒的书画鉴藏世界。本文从晚明山人展开讨论,作为具有山人普遍特征的陈继儒,交游、著书、鉴赏自真,为了给后人留下可供参考的书画文献,著录了《妮古录》。从《妮古录》当中,笔者看到了陈继儒的书画鉴藏活动和书画理论倾向,陈继儒与董其昌、项氏家族、李日华等书画收藏家交往频繁,其中与董其昌的书画交流更是长达三十多年之久,与江南地区书画名流的交往,拓宽了陈继儒的书画鉴定能力,培养了他典型的“文人画”倾向。陈继儒与董其昌的书画交流中,培养了二人共同的书画理论,陈继儒在其撰写的著书中大力提倡“南北宗”,为最终董其昌提出的“南北宗论”起到了很好的宣传作用。陈继儒的书画鉴藏活动,使其培养了独特的书画鉴定能力,分析了大量书画的真伪,也为陈继儒的书画创作提供了有益的帮助,最后笔者分析了陈继儒的画梅和山水画的特点。)、《朱彝尊曝书亭书画跋》(清初巨儒朱彝尊(1629~1709),清代词人、学者、藏书家。是一位学识渊博,独兼众长的学者。《曝书亭集》中序跋文尽显其考订之长。 朱彝尊长于考订,题跋之作尽显功力,一向受到高度的重视。)、《石渠宝笈》(《石渠宝笈》是清代乾隆、嘉庆年间的大型著录文献,初编成书于乾隆十年(1745年),共编四十四卷。著录了清廷内府所藏历代书画藏品,分书画卷、轴、册九类。作为我国书画著录史上集大成者的旷古巨著,书中所著录的作品汇集了清皇室收藏最鼎盛时期的所有作品,而负责编撰的人员均为当时的书画大家或权威书画研究专家。2014年,江西美术出版社和故宫出版社在《石渠宝笈》的基础上,联合出版《故宫博物院藏清内府抄本合编石渠宝笈(精选配图版)》,为《石渠宝笈》配图,是前者在当代的新发展,增加了其研究价值和鉴藏价值。)等诸书。因清代末列强的掠夺而散失,今藏于英国博物馆。无论其为摹本,修缮本,都足以窥见顾氏(顾恺之)及当时画风都是与之相似。虽然在此之间的画风及技巧诸方面,有多次的变化,如:两汉的雄浑朴厚,六朝开始逐渐精细(工笔),隋朝就画得很精致华丽了;然而大体都是先以墨线勾轮廓(以线造型),再赋以彩色,并在此前后都是遵循这一程序(系统)来进行的;这种方法成为亚洲大陆共同的绘画式样。印度阿近他窟,我国敦煌石室,日本法隆寺金堂等之壁画,均系类似手法。(《宣和画谱》等古书籍介绍英文省略。

Gu Kaizhi "Admonitions Scroll" are still retained in the world, sufficient for our reference. This painting had been recorded in the "Xuanhe a book on the art of drawing or painting", "Mi Fu's painting", "Chen Jiru Ni Gu recorded", "Zhu Yizun exposed Shuting painting postscript", "Shih-ch'u Pao-chi" and other books. Loss due to plunder of foreign powers at the end of the Qing Dynasty, now preserved in the British museum. Whether it is a copy of the repair, are enough to get a glimpse of Gu (Gu Kaizhi) and the style are similar. Although in this style and skills between the various aspects, there are a number of changes, such as: the powerful Puhou the Han Dynasty, the Six Dynasties began gradually refined (meticulous), the Sui Dynasty painting a very delicate gorgeous; but generally are first in line hook contour (line modeling), and then given to color, and before and after all follow this procedure (system) to carry out; this method has become a common painting style of Asian continent. India, near his cave, China Dunhuang Shishi, Japan horyuji Jintang murals are in a similar way. (Admonitions Scroll,"Xuanhe a on the art drawing or painting" and so on the introduction of the ancient books of. Omitted.) "book ellipsis

魏晋以后,我国的书学(书法)大发展,绘画上亦开始受书法运笔之影响。到了唐代就更盛行了,大大地发挥毛笔画线上的抑、扬、顿、挫之特有的趣味,开吴道子“兰叶描”(十八描的一种)等诸新法,一变隋陈细润之习,成正大雄浑之风格。

兼以唐、宋二代,禅风与诗理学之互相因缘,大大地促进了水墨画的发展,与山水、花鸟画之流行,使玩赏绘画者得到最大益处——“赏心悦目”;这样一来顿时成为当时社会(唐、宋)的新趋势(时尚),从而开辟了我国绘画史上的新纪元。元代的画风,虽是唐、宋二世的过渡之桥梁,然而大体上承唐宋之余波,仍可划入于“中世”。明、清二代,除明初画院中的水墨苍劲派外,其画风都可以概括为以“纤、浓、轻、软”呈现其特色,而存在有向近体转变的姿态。虽然,在这期间实际上是风俗画(传统绘画)之兴起与西洋画风的输入,这两者之间相互作用、相互交融,开一时之新生面,而呈现其变革(并延续至今)。然而这些变革的均系局部中之小波澜。虽然,绘画为艺术之一种,其演进之途程,总是依随当时的政治、思想、教育及特殊之环境而异其趋向。我国四、五千年来,随思潮之起落,战争之频发,政局之更易,则变化多端,其直接或间接地影响于绘画;因此,在绘画形式、绘画内容和绘画风格上各具变化与政治是形影之相随;也就是人们常说的:“艺术当随时代变”。

After the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the great development of Chinese calligraphy and calligraphy began to be influenced by calligraphy. The Tang Dynasty is more prevalent, greatly inhibit the development and carry forward, pause, and the unique taste brush line, Wu Daozi "Lanyemiao" A kind of technique of Chinese painting ("Eighteen trace" Chinese painting techniques) of the new law, a the Sui Dynasty expressed delicate Change, rounded habit. Become Zhengda vigorous style. And in Tang and Song Dynasty two dynasties, Zen and poetry theory of mutual karma, greatly promoted the development of ink painting, and popular landscape, flower and bird painting, the painting to get the maximum benefit, "Be good to hear or see"; so suddenly became the society of Tang and song (two the new trend of the dynasty) (Fashion), which opened a new era in the history of Chinese painting. Yuan's style, although Tang and Song Dynasties two transition of the bridge, but in the aftermath of the Tang and Song Dynasties, can be included in the "world". Ming and Qing Dynasties two, in addition to the Ming Dynasty at the beginning of the Vigorous ink genre academy, their style can be summarized as "shows its characteristics to thin, light, soft, shaggy, and there is close to body posture change. Although, in this period is actually Genre painting (traditional painting) and the rise of the Western painting style input, the interaction between them, mutual exchanges, opened at the new face, and showed its changes (and continues). However, these changes are small waves within the department. Although the painting as a kind of art, the evolution of the process, always in accordance with the prevailing political, ideological, special education and the environment vary its trend. In China from 4 to 5000 years, with thoughts of the ups and downs, the frequency of the war, the more councils, would be the most changeful, directly or indirectly impact on the painting; therefore, in the form of painting, painting and painting style on the content of the various changes and Xingying of politics is accompanied; is often said: "when the arts change with the times".

近一百年间特别是近二十年来随艺术流派、艺术形式的纷繁,以创新为目的画作也频频地出现在我们的视野里,真是“百花齐放、百家争鸣”。他们是:1、以传统绘画美为美的代表画家:齐白石、

    张大千、

   唐云、

    溥佐、

   于非闇、

   黄胄、

   王雪涛、

    朱屺瞻、

田世光、

    张世简、

    叶浅予、

   姚有多、  


白雪石、

    傅抱石、

   宋文治、

任率英、

     陈师曾等。



For nearly one hundred years, especially with numerous art schools and art form in the past twenty years, innovation for the purpose of the paintings also frequently appear in our field of vision, it is "All flowers bloom together, Contention of a hundred schools of thought". They are: 1, to the United States as the representative of the traditional painting artist: Qi Baishi, Zhang Daqian, Tang Yun, Yu feian, Huang Zhou, Pu Zuo, Wang Xuetao, Zhu Qizhan, Tian Shiguang, Zhang Shijian, Ye Qianyu, Yao Youduo, stone, Fu Baoshi, Ren Lvying, Chen Shiceng, song wenzhi.

2、传统绘画美结合西方绘画美的代表画家:徐悲鸿、

      蒋兆和、

   林凤眠等。


2, the traditional painting of the United States and the United States and the United States and the United States painting artist: Xu Beihong, Jiang Zhaohe, Lin Fengmian, etc..


待续

To be continued



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顾绍骅 发表于 2017-2-25 11:56:26
二                文化背景

Two      cultural background

1、 传统文化的融合
古代文人大多视绘画为余事,同书法一样用来充实自己的精神家园,情感得到宣泄,心灵得到净化。如米芾的画作,水墨点点,视为戏作,是作者随意、自然、不蹈故常的心态写照。也有的画家视绘画为生命,淡泊名利,为艺术而终生求索,同样受到人们的敬重。如清代的石涛,虽出家为僧,但在绘画创作上却倾注了大量的心血和汗水,他在绘画上的标新立异,招致了周围同道们的讥讽和嘲笑。但他不受时风的左右,提倡一画之法,主张画家要借写生抒发真情实感,不要斤斤计较于一点一画的得失,要从全局着眼。因此他的山水、人物画形态恣肆,不拘绳墨。其“墨海中立定精神”的主旨被后人广为传颂。通过上述分析,可给我们以如下三点启示:其一,恰如其分地抒情表意还要以深厚的笔墨功夫和广博的学养为根基。文入画的创作虽然要摆脱纸笔的限制,创造新的意境,一切服从于抒情主题,但有一点必须明确,即扎实的技法是表达情感的基础,熟练畅快地驾驭笔墨丹青,才能卓有成效。文人画家—般都书画兼善,如苏轼、米芾,皆执宋代书坛、画坛之牛耳,是后学效法的楷模。不断地加强自身的修养,澄澈内心也是文入画家的基本功。

1, the integration of traditional culture
Most of the ancient literati painting as a matter of fact, with the same as calligraphy to enrich their spiritual home, emotional catharsis, mind purification. Like Mi Fei's paintings, ink dots, as a joke for the author is free, natural, Too observant of conventional standards don't mind. Some artists as painting to life, indifferent to fame and wealth, and life-long search for the arts, equally respected by people. Such as Tao Shi in the Qing Dynasty, although the monk, but in the creation of painting has devoted a lot of effort and sweat, his painting on the start sth. new in order to be different, made friends ridiculed and laughed at. Free from the prevailing style but he left, promote a painting of the law, that artists to express real feelings through painting, do not Jinjinjijiao one point one gains and losses, we should focus on the overall situation. Therefore, his landscape painting patterns Zisi, shengmo. The theme of "Pen culture The spirit of standing" was later praised. Through the above analysis, we can give inspiration to the following three points: first, to a proper extent to the lyric sheet intended to deep Pen culture and extensive efforts of school support for the foundation. The picturesque, although the creation of pen and paper to get rid of restrictions, create new artistic conception, subject to all the lyrical theme, but it should be clear that the technique is a solid basis for the of emotion, skilled Chinese brush Mo Danqing cool to control can be very fruitful. Literati painters - all paintings general Jianshan, such as Su Shi, Mi Fei, all with Great song of the altar, the painting of artist learning model is the model. Continue to strengthen its cultivation of basic skills, Chengche heart is the text of the painter.

古代文人往往据于儒、依于道、欹于禅,对儒学、道家、禅宗理论浸淫颇深,进而极大地丰富了中国传统文人的文化思想,提高了文人的文化素质,对精神升华也起到了不可忽视的作用,这样他们的画作就体现了多重内涵,具有真正的艺术价值。其二,文人画家不管荣辱得失,始终痴迷于绘事。这固然和文人画特有的寄情功能有关。在—定程度上也反映了文人们对这门艺术的迷恋和热爱,毕生不辍。李苦禅先生在解放前生活困顿,还要经常面对日寇的威逼利诱,即便身陷囹圄仍念念不忘画艺。他笔下的雄鹰,气度超凡,目光炯炯,傲视苍穹,正是先生历万劫而不悔的生动写照。齐白石先生在中国画坛独树一帜,倡导新的画风,但却遭到别人的非议和围攻,但老人却以“不挨骂长不大”坦然应对,他笔下的群虾互相追逐嬉戏,逍遥自在。由画及人,我们可以得知画家内心对艺术的痴迷。其三,创作时要任心态自然流露。画家是绘画艺术王国的主宰,有了精深的笔墨功夫之后,可以暂时忘却一切,全神贯注地用艺术语言记录自己的所思所想。这样的创作过程不需要任何掩饰或是矫揉造作,不做任何名利之想,追求自然、纯真,这才是理想的创作过程:,如此才能创造美好的意境,作品才能成为寄情写志的上乘之作。研究心态与文入画的创作对我们的绘画创作具有重要意义。

The ancient literati often According to Confucianism、According to Taoism、According to the Buddhist, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen theory of Profound research, which has greatly enriched the China traditional literati culture, improve the cultural quality of the literati, also on the spirit of sublimation played a role can not be ignored, so that they reflect the paintings on the multiple connotations, with real artistic value. Second, the literati painters regardless of the pros and cons of honor, always obsessed with painting. This is of course and literati paintings unique Jiqing function. To a certain extent, also reflects the people's fascination with this art and love, Life Buchuo. Li Ku Chan in the predicament of life before liberation, but also often face the coercion, even shenxianlingyu Huayi still an obsession. He's an eagle, Bearing extraordinary, One's eyes flashed like lightning, Proud look The overarching sky, Mr. Li is eternal and not regret a vivid portrayal. Mr. Qi Baishi in the Chinese painting advocate new style, become an independent school, but others were objectionable, and the siege, but the elderly are "not scolded, not long" calm response, group of shrimp under his pen and chased each other, leisurely and carefree. By painting and people, we can learn that the artist's inner obsession with art. Third, the creation of any natural state of mind. The painter is a master of the art of painting the Kingdom, a sophisticated Pen and ink culture Kungfu, can forget everything, to be absorbed in his own artistic language records and thinking. This creative process does not need any disguise or Try to deceive by covering up one's real purpose, do not do anything to the fame and fortune, the pursuit of natural, pure, this is the ideal creative process, so as to create a better mood, work can become fine Jiqing write in for. The research mentality and the picturesque creation is of great significance to our painting creation.

2、        诗情画意与中国画的意境:

“无诗不能成画、无画不能为诗”(没有不能成为画的诗,也没有不能写成诗的画)。画家在画作上题以诗文,或记下创作背景,或只写一个言简意赅的画题,通过这样的题跋,—方面表达自己的思想,抒发自己的情感;另一方面,也使画的意境更加深邃,主题更加突出,布局构图更加完善,如果题跋又是精美的书法,那么观者在赏画的同时,还可得到书法的美感享受,这幅画作岂不是更加完美?诗情画意是中国画所追求的最高“境界”;并且诗、书、画、印堪称“四绝”。这是因为诗、画都是写人绘景;诗画并举,相映生辉,形成中国画一道亮丽的风景。由此可见,它们之间的关系应是有机结合的,不能把诗文视为多余。大画家黄宾虹曾说:“中国画有三不朽”,其中就有“诗书画合一不朽也”。

2,poetic Chinese painting the artistic conception of Chinese painting:
"There is no poem can not be a painting, no painting can not be a poem" (there is no poem can not be painted, there is no poem can not be written). In the paintings of the artist on the title to poetry, or a note of creative background, or just write a concise and comprehensive painting, through such inscriptions, and express their ideas, express their feelings; on the other hand, also make the painting more profound, more prominent theme, layout composition more perfect, if comments is the exquisite calligraphy, so the viewer in a picture at the same time, can enjoy the beauty of calligraphy, this painting is not a more perfect? Poetic Chinese painting is the highest pursuit of the "realm" China painting; and poetry, calligraphy, painting, seal Chinese called "four". This is because the poetry, painting is to write people painting king; poetry, Chinese painting simultaneously, Mutual confrontation glorify, the formation of a beautiful landscape of Chinese painting. Thus, the relationship between them should be an organic combination of poetry can not be considered redundant. Huang Binhong, a great painter, once said, "there are three immortals in Chinese painting"".

事实上,自古以来,将诗书画结合巧妙的人大有人在。比如:徐渭在《葡萄》上的题诗:“半生落魄已成翁,独立书斋啸晚风,笔底明珠无处卖,闲抛闲掷野藤中。”如果抛开这首诗,只是—串葡萄而已,还有何意义。

郑板桥一生爱竹、画竹他在《竹石》诗中写道:“咬定青山不放松,立根原在破岩中;千磨万击还坚劲,任尔东西南北风。”他以竹自喻、刚直不阿。可见,好的题画诗可以使画的意境更加深邃,主题更加突出有意义,甚至达到点石成金、化腐朽为神奇的作用。画友在一幅山水画中题跋道:“乱石堆中水一泓,草舍置于野林中,远离尘器听鸟语,管他春夏与秋冬。”在《农家之秋》中题曰:“谁说秋天气萧森,经霜红叶更精神,农夫收禾不在家,寻亲访故莫敲门。”在一幅《瀑布图》中题道:“清泉出山不停息,人生苦短自奋蹄。”在另一幅山水中题曰:“岸边房舍绿荫浓,船泊碧水一江中。静看云起云又落,闲坐船头作渔翁。”这是画家思想情感的自然流露,写景抒情朴实宛如“绿色食品”一样。



In fact, since ancient times, poetry, calligraphy, Chinese painting has a lot of clever people. For example: Xu Wei in "Grape" on the Half my life is Tishi: "not successful, has now become the old man Standing in, the study, at night and the wind chanting poetry, The grapes under the Chinese brush are nowhere to sell, Leisurely throwing wild vine." If you put aside the poem, just a bunch of grapes, what's the point?. Zheng Banqiao life love bamboo, the bamboo he wrote in "bamboo and stone" in the poem: "Insist not relax Castle Peak, The root of standing in the broken rock; Nature's millions of blows, he is strong, At the four corners of the world wind crazy." He is bamboo self, Upright and a outspoken. Therefore, a good poems inscribed on paintings can make the painting more profound, more prominent themes meaningful, even to able to perform wonders, turn bad into good effect. Friends in a painting landscape painting Inscriptions: "The rubble a fountain, The thatched house in the jungle, Listen to the birds away from dust Regardless of, his spring, summer autumn, and winter." The title said "autumn farmers": "Who says autumn weather Xiao Sen, After cold air Red autumnal leaves more spirit, cut the corn The farmer is not at home, Looking for relatives visit friends don't knock at the door." In a waterfall diagram in question: Clear spring out the mountains Won't Stop, Life is short, you have to struggle flows." In another landscape, said: The houses Green dense shore, The ship at the blue green water Jiang Zhong in stopped. Static view the clouds and cloud, Sit bow fisherman from." This is a painter 's spontaneous emotion and scenery Lyric like a simple "green food".

例如:顾绍骅创作的中国山水诗意画——《送僧游山》

For example: Gu Shaohua's poetic Chinese painting -- "Send monks visit the mountains"

【原诗(词)】:云身自在山山去,何处灵山不是归。日暮寒林投古寺,雪花飞满水田衣。——唐朝·熊孺登 《送僧游山》诗意



【赏析】:诗意深富禅趣——禅心如云,自自在在的向着一山又一山飞去,又有何处的灵山不可归去呢? 我去古寺“进香”,在风雪之中的傍晚穿越寒林;凛冽的寒风夹杂着雪花,狠狠地拍打在我的脸上、身体上,同时也钻进了我的领口、袖口,并且,那冰晶的雪花沾满了我的“水田”衣;这么的天寒地冻,我是“心诚则灵啊”!
规格:100×68cm       纸本设色  2006年创作)

[poetry]: The wandering body freely in the mountains to visit the mountains, And everywhere is their holy places, why can't return? The evening went to the temple to the cold forest, Snow filled the paddy field. - Tang - Xiong Rudeng "Send monks visit the mountains to"
[Appreciate]: The poems of deep of rich Buddhist Charm The Buddhist thoughts like clouds, From the freedom of a mountain and a mountain to fly, And everywhere is their holy places why can't return?? I went to the temple "pilgrimage", in the snow in the evening through the cold forest; cold wind mixed with snow, mercilessly slapping me in the face and body, but also got into my collar and cuffs, and the ice snow covered with my "paddy" clothes; so very cold. I am only when one believes "work in it sincerely"!
Specification: 100 * 68cm paper colors created in 2006)

笔者也在“自画像”中这样题道:“儒世家门坠一瓜,阎罗殿上险遭杀。翰林府第三敬履,蟾桂宫前四献花。”{笔者本人路遇车祸、险丧性命;康复后,又就读于中国书协书培中心之高级书法班时写的一首《感遇》诗。释义:书香世家生了一个男孩,阎王殿上险些被杀害。(在)翰林学府(书法培训中心)里,要象张良当年求学时①(注①:韩信当年求学时,其师试他的诚心与决心,过桥时有意将鞋子失落于桥下,张良当即将老师鞋子拾回,并双手敬奉给老师;如此三次,皆如此。其师为之所动,遂授兵书三卷,并予以指点,终使张良能成大业。这就是“遗桥三敬履”的历史故事),有诚心与决心刻苦学习;学成后一定以优异的成绩报效祖国。}。一幅画画得再好它所反映的物象、表现的空间是有限的,只有诗画并举,才能表现时空、寓意深刻。



The author is "self portraits" in this title: "A child born in Confucian family, Yanwangdian almost killed. The highest institution of Chinese Calligraphy Study carefully, After studying some excellent results to repay the state and society."{The author in the College Road, was hit by a car, Almost lost life; after rehabilitation, and attended Chinese Shuxie training centre on the high calligraphy class to write a song "Ganyu poem". Interpretation: the literary family gave birth to a boy, Yanwangdian almost killed. (in) Hallym University (calligraphy training center), like Zhang Liang in the year to study at (Note: Han Xin was in school, the teacher tries his sincerity and determination to put shoes lost in the bridge under the bridge, when the teacher Zhang Liang will pick up shoes, hands and worship for the teacher; so three times so, all. The division by the move, and grant three volumes, and to guide, so that Zhang Liang can end the big industry. This is the "On the bridge three times to help the teachers wear shoes allusions"), historical stories are sincere and determined to study hard; some after graduation with honors to serve the motherland. }. A picture of a good image, it reflects the space is limited, only poetry and painting simultaneously, to display the time, entertain a thought deeply.

白石老人一幅条幅,画的下方只画了三只小鸡。其余全是空白,只是在右上方题了长款,计白当黑,虚实结合,诗画互补,相映生辉,别有一番趣味。题画诗,还可以使画家爱、憎、悲、愁、褒、贬、扬、弃等多种情感更加强烈地倾注于画面。再如在画作《不倒翁》上题道:“乌纱白扇俨然官,不倒原来泥半团,将汝忽然来打破,通身何处有心肝。”这样的题跋使一幅简单的不倒翁画变得意境深远,意义不凡。如果不是这首诗,画中的不倒翁就显得毫无意义。



A Qi Baishi painting scroll, painted just below the painting of the three chicks. The rest is blank, just in the upper right of the long paragraph, reckon blank as inked, selective focus, Poetry painting each other, Complement each other, do not have some fun. Poems Inscribed on paintings, so that artists can also love, hate, sadness, sorrow, derogatory and commendatory, Yang, abandoned and other emotions more strongly into the picture. Another example is in the works of "Tumbler" on the title: "Black gauze cap, white fan is very much like the official, The reason for not falling is Half sludge Hereunder Will you, suddenly break, The upper and lower body where there is a heart?." This preface and postscript; make a simple painting changed Bu Daoweng mood in the far-reaching significance. If it weren't for the poem, the Tumbler in the painting would be meaningless.

白石老人《不倒翁》的题画诗对那种道貌岸然、久居高位,却无任何修养,只会欺压百姓的饭桶草包官给予了有力的鞭笞。画家爱什么,恨什么,旗帜非常鲜明,感受常强烈。如徐渭的题葡萄诗,郑板桥的题竹诗都倾注着画家强烈的思想感情。画家融情于画,更借诗直抒胸臆。看着画,读着诗,使观画者受到强烈的感染。画因诗而更具情感魅力;诗因画而更加意义不凡。诗画相得益彰,类似这样好的题画诗在当今画坛也并不鲜见。因而构成了中国画独有的艺术特色,达到一个高层次的美学水平,这是其它任何艺术所不能比拟的。有诗言:又如有山不宜平。”作画亦然。

Qi Baishi's "tumbler" poems inscribed on paintings, that pose as a person of high morals, without any training, only the oppressed people of Idiot Officer to give a powerful Lash. What artists love, hate what, the flag is very bright, often strong feelings. Such as Xu Wei's question Grape poetry,'s bamboo poems are devoted to the artist's strong feelings. The artist emotion in painting, by expressing thoughts or feelings deep in poem one's heart. Look at the picture, read the poem, so that the painter was a strong infection. The painting is more emotional because of poetry; poetry is more meaningful than painting. Poetry and Chinese painting complement each other complement each other, Poems Inscribed on like this good paintings in today's art world is also not uncommon. Thus constitute the unique artistic features of Chinese painting, to achieve a high level of aesthetics, which is any other art, can not be compared. There is a poem: And if mountain is not the flat." Painting is also.

中国园林讲究以“曲径通幽”式的廊回路转、流水小桥分割空间,制造出一种视觉上的隐蔽迷离之美。中国画亦常在笔墨境象的模糊中追求亦此亦彼、非此非彼,超以象外、得其环中的艺术效果。其魅力之所在,正是借助于形式与精神的诗意化气质,引发人们对有限物象的联想,使画中最难表达的意态与神采转化为弦外之音的回响,使欣赏者能够在瞬间获得一个整体的对绘画时空观的认知与把握。这种认知通常是一个关于审美对象模糊的整体图景的显现,并不拘泥于某一细节。



China landscape "The winding path leads to a secluded quiet place" type, water bridge division space, creating a visual blur the hidden beauty. China painting is often in The cultural environment of Writing brush and ink fuzzy pursuit in both this and that, this is not out of the ordinary, the ring, artistic effect. The charm of poetic temperament, it is with the help of form and spirit, lead people to think of the limited object, and will look to the most difficult to express into overtones response, so that the participants can in an instant access to a drawing on the overall understanding and grasp of space and time. This kind of cognition is usually a manifestation of the overall picture of the vague aesthetic object, and is not restricted to a particular detail.

而却更多地关注着诸如委婉、含蓄、一波三折的情境语言的运用;关注虚空、澄明、言外之意、象外之声的经营构思谋略;张彦远在《历代名画记》中所讲“意在笔先,画尽意在”,写意自古就是民族艺术观,也是中国绘画艺术的美学原则所谓“一枝一叶总关情”,我们所画的植物,它既无感情,也无思想,而画家们往往赋予它们某种含义,即画家立意的主观作用自然美的特征触动了画家的某种情感,从而“借景抒情,以物言志”画家们正是以自己独特的视角及感觉确定自已的“立意”,以表达自己的感情,“立意”不是纯主观的臆造,它是画家体验认识生活的结果它是一种美的理解和认识,它还包括了人的思想、感情、理想、修养在里面。通过“外师造化,中得心源”,也就是通过向客观事物要感觉之后形成和发现不同一般的认识,这才是----“意”也可以说“意”足一切艺术作品的灵魂:只有在感情和认识的基础上半场提炼、概括、升华而形成的“立意”,才是绘画作品所需的应该说“意”足情的升华情是“意”的基础。

And is more concerned about the use of situational language such as tactful and reserved, the void, striking one snag after another; focus on clarity, implication, as the voice of the business concept of strategy; Zhang Yanyuan in "The famous paintings through the ages" mentioned in the "work out the plot before putting pen to paper, Chinese painting finished Significance in" that is the ancient folk art freehand concept is China painting art aesthetic principles of the so-called "A branch, a leaf is always related to affectionate expression", we are painting plants, it has no feelings, no thoughts, and artists often give them a meaning, namely the characteristics of subjective conception of the natural beauty of the artist role touch a painter's emotion, thus "lyric by King, to express" artists are in their own unique perspective and feel it Set their own "conception", to express their feelings, "make up one's mind" is not a purely subjective conjecture, it is the artist experience life and it is a kind of beauty and understanding, it also includes people's thoughts, feelings, ideals, culture inside. Through the "The study of nature Get your own knowledge", that is, through to the objective things to feel, formed and found different understanding in general, this is the "meaning", also can say "meaning" all the soul of Art: only based on emotion and recognition in the first half, refining summary and sublimation and the formation of "make up one's mind", is the painting required should be said that the "meaning" foot the sublimation of love love is "meaning" basis.

《罗丹艺术论》中曾说过“艺术就是感情”,没有感情基础的艺术,也就是说连自己都不感动的东西史无法打动别人的我们欣赏画时,时为其内含的艺术魅力所吸引,画有十分意趣、主观思想相互交融;为画外之意,弦外之情所打动、所陶冶、所感染,这就是“意境”作用…:“意境”是艺术的灵魂,是客观事物精华部分的集中,加上人的思想感情的陶铸,经过高度艺术加工达到情景交融,借景抒情,从而表现出来的艺术境地是鲜活的、生动的。

"Luo Dan art theory" said "art is emotional," not based on feelings of the art, that is to say if you don't move things to impress others and we appreciate the history of painting, attracted by the artistic charm of its implicit, painting a very interest, subjective thinking of mutual exchanges; Beyond painting Significance String, outside friendship, moved by the mould, the infection, this is the "artistic conception"... "Artistic conception" is the soul of art, is part of the essence of things, coupled with people's thoughts and feelings of the Tao Zhu, after the height reached Is a fusion of art feelings with the natural setting, take advantage of a scene to express one's emotion, which showed the state of the art is fresh and vivid.

白居易认为学无常师,故其指一意状一物,往往运思中与神会”。他在《画竹歌》中写道:“不根而生从意生,不笋而成由笔成(不是根而生出与根相同的意义的生命,不是竹笋而制成的笔成为很好的笔…)……举头忽看不似画,低手静听疑有声。”似乎早已悟出了中国画“妙在似与不似之间”的真谛。中国画家与诗人“游心之所在”( 游离、创新的思想之所在),就是自身对造化自然独特感悟的美境,创造的意象。这电决定了中国画自始至终的浪漫主义情结和诗性的内质。董其昌说得好:“诗以山川为境,山川亦以诗为境。(诗情是以山川为境界,山川也是以诗意为境界。”)”艺术家禀赋的诗心,映像着天地万物的诗心,山川大地是宇宙诗心的影现(艺术家充满诗意的情怀,表现着喜爱大自然万物的诗意,山川大地是宇宙诗心的影现);画家诗人的心灵活跃,本身就是宇宙的创化,它的卷舒取舍,好似太虚片云、寒塘雁迹,空灵而自然。中国画家诗人“迹化自然,因心造境,曲尽蹈虚揖影之妙”(“一切痕迹的表现,都是来源于自然,因为艺术家的心境而造出画境来,这一切音乐、舞蹈都是空的、虚的,只是艺术家发挥自己想象而表现出的漂亮的画”宗白华语),可以说是中国诗画的基本特征。也是崇尚“虚空”之美的写意型的中国画与以“实”为本(巴门尼德的Being)的西方古典绘画在创作观念上的最大区别。

Bai Juyi thinks that A learner has no need of a constant teacher So one idea Describe an object, thought with God". He wrote in "Bamboo song": "Not from the roots and from the meaning of life, Not grown from bamboo shoots, is formed by Writing brush (not the root and root and give birth to the same meaning of life, not the bamboo shoots and made a good pen pen...)...... Raise the head look like painting, Listen to sound of suspected the me Suddenly no." It seems to have realized the true meaning of Chinese painting "Be Subtle Artistically to be Both Real and Unreal" in Depicted. Chinese painter and poet "Wandering thoughts Where" (free, innovative ideas, where) is its own unique insight on the nature of natural beauty, to create the image. This power determines the romantic complex and poetic nature of Chinese painting from beginning to end. Dong Qichang said: "poetry in the mountains and rivers for the environment, the mountains and rivers are also poetry for the environment. (poetry in the mountains and mountains with poetic realm, but also for the realm. ")" Artist endowment heart of the poem, the image of all things of the heart, mountains and the earth is the universe is the impact of heart Poetry (artist full of poetic expression, poetic nature of things, like mountains and the earth is the universe is the impact of heart Poetry); the painter poet's mind active, is the founding of the universe, it the Roll up and unfold, Admission and renunciation, A cloud in the universe, like Cold pond, The wild goose footprint, ethereal and natural. Chinese painter and poet "traces of natural Thought, creating environment, Best song and dance, seize the wonderful virtual shadow" ("all traces of the performance are derived from nature, because the mood of the artists to create painting, music and dance are all empty, empty, only artists play their own imagination show the beautiful picture in Chinese), white can be said to be the basic characteristics of China poem. It is also the biggest difference between the freehand brushwork of Chinese painting and the western painting of "reality" (Ba Mened's Being).

在美术史上,自古以来就有两种完全不同的表现方式:一种是以再现客观世界为主的写实型艺术,它以西方古典油画为代表;一种是以表现主观心绪与情感为主的浪漫、表现型艺术。中国画就是以后者为其基本特征的。浪漫、表现性绘画,早在战国时代的楚墓帛画《人物夔凤图》

及西汉马王堆幡画中就已初露端倪。

自唐朝文人画初创以来,中国绘画则更加注重托物抒情、以画寄乐的表达方式的运用。而“绘画以形似,见与儿童邻(绘画如果以画得“形似”而判定好与坏,他的见识与儿童一样)”也正是苏轼对先贤们艺术实践的理论总结。它之所以能够存在,并且,具有旺盛的生命力,一直被文人们捧为绘画的至理,原因是离不开在中国哲学虚空的宇宙观(老子“万物生于有,有生于无”)影响下艺术家对诗化的精神内质与诗意的形式外观的永恒追求。的确,中国绘画的这种观念也正是把握了中国艺术的精神实质,把握了中国艺术诗性的品质特点,才经受住了时间风雨的考验,并一直影响至今。宋代哲学家程伊川说过:“冲漠无朕(天地未判时的宇宙原始状态),而万象昭然已具。”昭然万象以冲漠无朕(天地未判时的宇宙原始状态)为基础,使实中有虚、虚中生实,空外余波,袅袅不绝,“无画处皆成妙境”(笪重光语),这便是中国画在对意境美的追求中最不可言传的精神所在。

In art history, since ancient times are two completely different performance: a realistic reproduction of the objective world of art mainly, it to Western classical paintings as representatives; performance is a subjective mood and emotion as romantic, expressive art. Chinese painting is the basic feature of the later. Romantic, expressive painting, as early as the Kingdoms Period (475-221 B.C.) Chu tomb paintings (People Kui picture) and the Western Han Dynasty Mawangdui banner drawing has been show the initial symptoms Warring. Since the beginning of the Tang dynasty literati painting, Chinese painting is more emphasis on Use images emotion Express, the use of painting to express the expression of music. "Painting to the shape, see neighbors and children (if the painting painted" shape "and whether good or bad, his insight, and like other children)" Su Shi is also summed up the sages who practice the art of. It can exist, and has strong vitality, the text has been praised for painting. The reason is, cannot do without in the void China philosophy of the universe (Lao Tzu "was born in all things, from nothing") under the influence of the eternal pursuit of poetic spirit and artist of poetic form appearance. Indeed, the concept of Chinese painting is to grasp the spirit of Chinese art, grasp the quality of Chinese art poetry characteristics, only to withstand the test of time and wind, and has been affected so far. The Song Dynasty philosopher Cheng Yichuan said: "Primitive universe (world is not sentenced the original state, and has been Zhaoran Vientiane)." Zhaoran Vientiane Primitive universe (world is not sentenced the original state) based the virtual and virtual reality in the air, Yu Bo, "No painting all Niaoniao. Into Wonderland (Da Zhongguang), which is the most Chinese painting in the pursuit of artistic beauty can only be sensed. Spirit.

3、              传说、典故、神话

3,                legends, allusions, myths

①  考画院的传说
中国画十分讲究“藏”与“露”的关系,特别讲究如何“藏”的韵味。宋代的皇帝赵佶(徽宗)虽不善治国以至“靖康之耻”,他却能书善画,诗词功夫也非同一般;他自创“瘦金体”的书法和形象细腻的画鸟画流传至今,堪称一代大师。据说宋代的考宫廷画师时出了这样的几道题:“踏花归去马蹄香”、“深山藏古寺”、“万绿丛中一点红”。
平庸的画师们将“踏花归去马蹄香”的画面表现为:一匹飞驰的骏马,跑过花园……;将“深山藏古寺” 的画面表现为:残锈班驳的佛堂被高耸云天、粗壮的古榕树所“半遮半现” ……将“万绿丛中一点红” 的画面表现为:一片绿茵茵的杂树林里,一枝紫红色的美人蕉在一枝独绣地绽放……。
应考画师夏珪将“踏花归去马蹄香”画为:初雨天晴,林间小道上,由远及近、稀稀地零落一行马蹄印;在最近的马蹄印上有三只蜜蜂,两只在蹄印上盘旋准备采蜜,而另一只沿着“香路”一直向前飞去……;在“深山藏古寺”中,他将画面画成:在飞岩绝壁、蜿蜒的石矶小道上两名步履蹒跚的老和尚,正吃力地抬着一桶水向山上走去,一旁是云雾缭绕的林海……;而在“万绿丛中一点红”的画面是:在一望无垠的绿色丛林与稻田间,一位紫衣少女双手分别拎着给亲人送午餐的饭篮与陶瓦罐;那迎面拂面而来的山风,吹动着紫衣显现少女婀娜的身影,吹开少女的乌发露出美丽的脸庞——蛾眉凤眼、粉腮朱唇,透出春的气息……。夏珪终因很好地处理了“藏”与“露”的关系而考上了画师。即:“踏花归去马蹄香”、“深山藏古寺”分别隐藏了 “马”与“古寺”;第一:用“马蹄印”来表现马,用蜜蜂来反映画面的主题——香;第二:用了“两名步履蹒跚的老和尚”来表现这个藏着的“古寺”,达到了“含而不露、回味无穷”之目的。而在“万绿丛中一点红”中通过“绿色丛林”与“紫衣少女”刻画,露出了大自然和人间两种“春意”。

①   The academy examination legend
Chinese painting is very particular about the "hidden" and "dew" of the relationship, especially pay attention to how the "Tibetan" charm. The Song Dynasty emperor Zhao Ji (Huizong) although the country and the poor "Jingkang the shame", he was able to book good painting, poetry is extraordinary effort; he created "style of Chinese calligraphy originated by Emperor Huizong of the Song Dynasty (Zhao Ji), characterized by slim yet sturdy strokes" the image of delicate calligraphy and painting bird painting spread so far, may be called a generation of master. It is said that the Song Dynasty court painter made a few test questions like: "Flower guiqu horseshoe riding", "the Old Temple The mountains hide" and "a single red flower in the midst of thick foliage".
Mediocre portrait masters will "Flower guiqu horseshoe riding" for the screen performance: a speeding horse, running across the garden...... "The Old Temple; The mountains hide" for the screen performance: Residual rust Banbo Towering into the sky, the temple was thick ancient banyan tree "Half cover Half now"...... "A single red flower in the midst of thick foliage" for the screen performance: a mixed forest green, a purple red canna bloom in a single embroidery.......
An artist Xia GUI will Flower guiqu horseshoe riding "for the painting: the early rain, forest trails, from far and near, thin to scattered line marks; there are three bees in the recent marks, two in the hoof circling for Caimi, and another along the" fragrant Lu always fly forward...... In "the Old Temple; The mountains hide", he painted pictures: the old monk in two teeter flying rocks cliffs, winding the rocky path, trying to carry a bucket of water to go to the mountain, one side is the misty forest...... In "a single; red flower in the midst of thick foliage" the picture is: in the green forest and paddy boundless between a purple dress young girl hands were carrying to relatives to send lunch lunch baskets and pottery jar; the face feels to mountain breeze, blowing purple show girl graceful figure the girl's hair, blowing open a beautiful face, Crescent crassipes, Pink gills, with the breath of spring....... Xia GUI the end result well with the "Tibet" and "open" and admitted the artist. Namely: "Flower guiqu horseshoe riding", "the Old Temple The mountains hide" hidden "horse" and "Temple"; first use "Hoof print" to show horses, bees to reflect the subject of the picture - incense; second: the "two Teeter of the old monk" to the performance of this hidden "Temple", to "contain but not exposed, to lead a person to endless aftertastes". In the "a single red flower in the midst of thick foliage" in the "green forest" and "purple girl" depiction of human nature and exposed the two spring".

②  人们喜爱的“吉祥画”

如:《三羊开泰》、《福寿图》、《前程万里》、《吉利全家》、《上山虎》等。
⑴《三羊开泰》:癸未年已至,又是一个羊年。羊通“祥”,又与“阳”谐音,故羊儿历来被人们视为吉祥的象征。三只羊在—起寓意“三阳开泰”,取冬去春来,阴消阳长之意。故每逢羊年,画家中以此为题材作画者甚多。 (寓意:喜则升阳古人说,喜则阳气生。只生欢喜不生愁的人,在古代就被称为神仙。喜是人生的一种大境界,能够保持一颗欢喜心,对身体的滋养是比吃什么灵丹妙药都管用的。)



⑵《福寿图》:画面上都是吉祥的象征——长寿的绶带鸟(绶:与寿谐音,即:长寿的意思。)、寿桃、仙果(佛手)等。



⑶《前程万里》:古钱、拂尘、万年青、李子(一种水果),摆在“乳臭未干”的孩子身边;以示“前程万里”。(钱:“前” 的谐音字、尘“程” 的谐音字、李“里” 的谐音字。)




②      The lucky painting"
Such as: "Three Rams Bliss", "Blessing Longevity", "His future will be great", "Geely family", "Geely tiger" and so on, "Bring".
⑴    The "Three Rams Bring Bliss": ram has to, but also a year of the goat. Sheep - "Xiang", and "Yang" homophonic, Yanger has always been regarded as a symbol of good luck. Three sheep in the meaning of "Three Rams Bliss", take the winter to spring, Yin deficiency Yang growth meaning and. Therefore, during the year of the sheep, the painter takes this as the theme of painting a lot. (meaning: joyful, Sun Microsystems, this is the ancients said, joyful Yang of health. Only those who are born without joy or sorrow are called gods in ancient times. Joyful is a kind of realm of life, to keep a happy heart, is effective than what to eat for the body to nourish a ready-made panacea.)
⑵  The "Blessing Longevity": the screen is emblem, of good fortune Paradise Flycatcher (Shou: longevity and Sau euphony, namely: the meaning of longevity.) , Peach-Shaped Mantou, Ambrosia (fingered citron), etc..
⑶  The "His future career will be great": old coins, whisk, evergreen, plum (a fruit), placed in the "young and ignorant" children who show a promising future "". (money: "before" homophonic words, "Cheng dust" homophonic words, "Li" homophonic words.)

⑷中国山水诗意画——《吉利全家》
【原诗】小鸡竦而待,贵似荔枝来。利爪削黄金,云林谢家宅。   规格:68×136 ㎝     纸本设色    2012年10月创作
  


【欣赏】小鸡在父母的呵护下,茁壮成长;这一天,小鸡们“毕恭毕敬”地等待着父母喂食。不一会,父母把小鸡们带到荔枝树下,那些珍贵的荔枝好像知道它们要来,稀疏的散落在地上;父母用大而有力的利爪削开那些黄金般珍贵的荔枝,给小鸡们品尝……;在云林深处,“旧时王谢”家宅里,小鸡一家无忧无虑地生活着。
⑸《上山虎》:上山虎寓意做任何都是“上升、吉利、威猛”等;故,做官、做生意(特别是做股票)的都要“讨个吉利”,因此,“上山虎”(如:本文介绍的《雪谷传啸声》)就是中国百姓所喜爱的。
  


⑷  The Chinese poetic landscape painting - "auspicious family"
The chick to wait her, Waiting for parents to feed under the lychee tree the (neck). The chicken claws open gold litchi the chickens, The clouds, trees are with ordinary but happy Feed home covered cut parents. Specification: 68 * 136 cm of paper colors created in October 2012
[appreciation] chicken in the care of their parents, to thrive; this day, the chicks "waiting for parents to feed reverent and respectful.". After a while, the chicks with parents to lychee trees, those precious lychee seems to know they are coming, sparsely scattered on the ground; the parents with large and powerful claws cut those golden lychee, to taste the chicks...... ; in the depths of Yunlin, "old Wang Xie" home chicken, a light of heart from care to live.
⑸  The "Geely tiger": the meaning of any tiger is "rising, Geely, the mighty"; therefore, an official, to do business (especially the stock) are "luck", therefore, "Tiger Mountain" (such as: the "Snow Valley Tiger roar") is in people in love.

③  典故

⑴刘奎龄的《忠孝节义》
以典故入画的代表性——《忠孝节义》中,刘奎龄仍旧采取自己最熟悉的动物题材来表现中华民族的四种传统美德-犬在我们的传统中—一向是“忠”的代表;而羊与“孝”也有着紧密的联系,《增广贤文》中有“羊有跪乳之恩,鸦有反哺之义”的句子,羊是吉祥的动物,吃奶时又都是跪着,因此被古人视为感恩、孝顺的象征;牛吃苦耐劳,在古人心目中地位很高,至今很多地方仍流传着各种“义牛传”的故事,因而用牛来作“义”的代名词也很贴切;至于刘奎龄用马来表现“节”则源于鸦片战争中的一个故事。1841年1月,英军攻占了虎门海口的沙角炮台,守将陈连升牺牲,他的战马被英军掳至香港。这匹马性情刚烈,英人喂之不食,骑之则摔,近之则踢,惟独华人手捧食料喂它,它才肯吃,只要一提到陈连升的名字它就流泪不止。有人说要把它送回虎门,它便摇尾相随,但它最终还是未能回去。后来它日夜在高岗上不吃不眠,望北而嘶,最终饿死在香港,被誉为“节马”。当时很多人都作了“节马诗”、“节马图”来纪念它。(刘奎龄(1885—1967),现代画家。字耀辰,天津人。曾任中国美术家协会天津分会副主席。他善画动物、花鸟,尤以狮虎见长,此外也能作山水人物。《忠孝节义》四屏条的名字很容易让人认为是人物画。)



③        literary quotation
⑴  "Liu Kuiling's" Loyalty, filial piety, chastity and righteousness "
On behalf of: "Loyalty, filial piety chastity and righteousness story painting," Liu Kuiling, still take their most familiar animal theme to represent four traditional virtues of the Chinese nation - dogs in our tradition, has always been "loyalty"; sheep and "filial piety" is closely "To the general, public Behave oneself Canonical essay" in the "Sheep have the grace to kneel, crow has feedback of righteousness" in the sentence, the sheep is an auspicious animal, when infants are kneeling, it was viewed as a symbol of gratitude and filial piety; Endure hardships and be capable of cattle hard work, very high status in the eyes of the ancients, has many places are still spread all kinds of "cattle justice" story, synonymous and cattle to "justice" is also appropriate for Liu Kuiling; The "performance" of the Malay age is derived from a story in the Opium war. In January 1841, the British captured Humen Haikou Shajiao fortress, Chen Liansheng will keep his sacrifice, the horse was taken to the British Hongkong. This horse temperament staunch, British people do not eat feed, Mount a horse and fall off, Approaching horse Kicking, but with Chinese food to feed it, it will eat, as long as the mention of Chen Liansheng's name it tears. Some people say that to send it back to Humen, it will shake tail, but it still can not go back. Later in the evening it did not take on Mian Gao Gang, Wang North Sima, eventually starve to death in Hongkong, known as "Ma day". At that time many people have made a "Poetry Festival Ma," "day map" to commemorate it. Liu Kuiling (1885 - 1967), modern painter. Word Yao Chen, Tianjin people. Former vice chairman of Tianjin branch of Chinese artists association. He is good at painting animal, flowers and birds, especially Shihu Kyo, in addition to landscape character. "Loyalty, filial piety, chastity and righteousness four" the name of a set of hanging scrolls people think it is very easy to figure painting).

⑵《八骏图》与陈英泉
以画明志的代表性——《八骏图》。1945年暮春,“甲午同庚会”中的著名画家郑午昌、汪亚尘、吴湖帆、杨清磬,戏剧家梅兰芳、周信芳、洪警铃,文学家范烟桥等八人按“周穆王有八骏”的故事,约请当时海上画坛八位画马高手合作《八骏图》,由“甲午同庚会”八位同仁在图上签署,以表心迹。参与创作此图的画家为:熊松泉、赵敬予、戈湘岚、殷梓湘、谢之光、谢碧月、陈英泉、徐韶九。他们各绘一骏,以象征“甲午同庚会”中八位志士。此图由书法家马公愚题签。题跋者尚有书画家王福庵、张大干、冯超然、沈尹默、张谷年、潘勤孟及吴稚晖、李石曾等一大批名流。此图是—幅“图存八骏,志励千秋”的艺术珍品。



这件《八骏图》,曾在1985年《西泠艺报》创刊号上刊载过,这件事遂在当代艺苑引为美谈。然而,郑午昌等八位名士俱已作占,画马高手熊松泉、赵敬予、戈湘岚、殷梓湘、谢之光五位也已相继去世,其中的谢碧月、徐韶九两位现在的情况不明,倘若健在的话,当也均是耄耋老人了。所幸其中的陈英泉先生至今仍活跃在姑苏艺苑。

⑵  The "Eight fine horses" and Chen Yingquan
On behalf of Eight fine horses -- "Ming" painting. In the late spring of 1945, "the 1894 g" of the famous painter Zheng Wuchang, Wang Yachen, Wu Hufan, Yang Qingqing, Mei Lanfang, Zhou Xinfang, Hong dramatists bell, literary van Bridge eight people to smoke "Mu Wang Bajun" story, then invite eight horses in the high sea painting "Eight fine horses" in military cooperation, signed by "the 1894 g" eight colleagues on the map, in their minds. Participate in the creation of this figure painter: Xiong Songquan, Zhao Jingyu, Ge Xianglan, Yin Zixiang, Xie Zhiguang, Xie Biyue, Xu Shaojiu, Chen Yingquan. They painted a horse, with a symbol of "the 1894 g" in the eight person. This picture is composed of calligrapher Ma Gongyu name. Were the painter Wang Fuan, and Zhang Dagan, Feng Chaoran, Shen Yinmo, Zhang Gunian, Pan Qinmeng and Wu Zhihui, Li Shi had a large number of celebrities. This figure is a "Picture eight horse, Ambition inspired Millennium" art treasures.
This "Eight fine horses", was published in 1985 on the first issue "Xiling arts newspaper", it was cited as well in contemporary art. However, Zheng Wuchang and other eight celebrities have made for Xiong Songquan, Zhao Jingyu, Ma painting master, Ge Xianglan, Yin Zixiang, Xie Zhiguang five have died, including Xie Biyue and Xu Shaojiu two are unknown, if alive, when are old. Fortunately, one of Mr. Chen Yingquan is still active in Suzhou yiyuan.

待续

To be continued



顾绍骅 发表于 2017-3-3 16:41:41
三、     笔墨特点        
我国素有“书画同源”之说;不管书与画,所用的工具是相同的。行笔、运笔等技巧相同,中国书法是“以线造字”,而中国画历来是“以线造型”(以线条为主要造型手段)。尽管中国画的革新以色彩为突破口,并出现了大量的以色彩为主的现代作品,但是线条仍然起着重要的作用,传统绘画线条高超的表现技巧以及优秀的文化内涵,已经被继承下来并有所创新。因此,研究中国画线条的历史发展轨迹,使我们对中国画线条的继承与创新有一个更清醒的认识是十分重要的。中国画线条的突出特点是富有表现性,它是至今多数国家绘画艺术中的线条所难以企及的。
Three, Chinese ink features
Our country is known as "calligraphy and painting homology" said; regardless of books and paintings, the tools used are the same. Bank, Yunbi skills such as the same, Chinese calligraphy is "Line defined", and China painting has always been a "Line modeling" (lines as the main means of modeling). Although Chinese painting innovation in color as a breakthrough point, and there are a lot of color mainly to the modern works, but the line still plays an important role in the traditional painting lines superb performance skills and excellent cultural connotation, has been inherited and innovation. Therefore, it is very important to study the history of Chinese painting lines, so that we can have a clearer understanding of the inheritance and innovation of Chinese painting lines. Chinese line painting is the prominent characteristics of the rich performance, it is so far the majority of countries in the art of painting the lines are elusive.
善于“牵着线条去散步”的德国现代主义大师克利说:“笔迹最关键的是表现而不是工整。请考虑—下中国人的做法。”中国画线条表现性技法的成熟虽然远远早于西方,但它不是一步到位的,而是经历了漫长的发展。不动的线到飞动的线。人类在原始社会所创造的线条,主要是直线、横线和圆线。由于使用这些线,人们就可以在画面上画出对象的结构,传达出所要传递的信息。此后随着文明的发展,人们又感到直线、横线和圆线比较呆板、僵硬和缺少动感和生命力,于是创造了一些波状的、粗细不匀的、富有张力的线条。我们从周代青铜器《饕餮簋》、  


汉代画像石拓片中可以看出,

中国画线条从公元前十世纪开始就有了巨大的发展:从平实的线逐渐变为富有生命力的飞动的线条。这种变化是怎样表现出来的呢?
Good at holding line to walk, "the German modernist master Klee said:" the handwriting is the most crucial performance. Please consider the Chinese practice." Although the performance of Chinese painting lines is far more mature than in the west, but it is not a step in place, but experienced a long development. Fixed line to move the line. In primitive society created by human line, is a straight line, horizontal line and the circle line. As a result of the use of these lines, people can draw on the screen structure of the object, to convey the information to be conveyed. Then with the development of civilization, people also feel a straight line, horizontal line and the circle line relatively inflexible, rigid and lack of dynamism and vitality, and creates a number of wavy, uneven thickness, tension lines. We are from the "Gluttonous feasts", Zhou Dai bronze of the Han Dynasty "Han portrait stone rubbings" can be seen in the line China painting began to have great development from tenth Century BC: from the plain line gradually becomes full of vitality of the flying lines. How does this change come about?
这要从线条的位置、运动方向、张力等方面来研究。首先,这两件作品中出现了波状线(亦称蛇形线)。这种线条的位置与方向不像直线那样固定,它好象是在摆动而且活动的方向不确定,这样在视觉上就给人以动感。其次,这两件作品中的线条不像以往直线那样平直均匀,而是有粗有细,由此可知,作者在运笔时所用的力度和速度是不均匀的。这种力度与速度的不同,就表现出线条在空间与时间上的运动,因而给人以动感;再次,我们从饕餮头部的向相反方向夸张性运动的线条中,从马的四条腿最大限度地向不同方向伸展的姿态中可以看出,作者企图通过线条的巨大张力来表现饕餮、马的奋进,使青铜器、石头上的动物给人视觉上强烈的运动感。正是通过这种运动感,才使作品表现出极强的生命活力。从轮廓线到表现结构、空间、亮度的条。有些人常用“单线平涂”来概括中国画的特点,这是不确切的。单线平涂是人类早期绘画的共同特点。自汉末后,中国画的特点就难以用单线平涂来说明了。轮廓线尉旨所画物象的周边线。它面对的是所画物象与它所处空间的关系,因此它只是把某一物象从大的背景中分离出来,而无法显现这一物象的内部结构和光分布。自从中国画家创造了独特的皴法、描法以及擦染之后,对物象内部结构与光分布的处理,就不是借助透视法、明暗法,而是以本民族独特的表现形式描绘出来。从五代时董源的《潇湘图》中,我们可以看到中国画线条的发展变化:
This is from the line position, direction of movement, tension and other aspects of the study. First of all, a wavy line two works (also known as serpentine line). The position and direction of the line is not as fixed as a straight line, it seems to be in the swing and the direction of the movement is not sure, so visually gives a dynamic. Secondly, the lines of the two works are not as straight and uniform as the straight lines in the past, but they are thick and thin, which shows that the strength and speed of the author in the use of the pen is uneven. The intensity and speed of different lines on the show in space and time on the campaign, which gives a dynamic; thirdly, we head in the opposite direction from the gluttonous exaggerated lines of motion, from the maximum four legged horse stretched in different directions in attitude can be seen, the author attempts to to show the enormous tension line gluttonous, horse endeavour, bronze, stone the animal gave a strong visual sense of movement. It is through this sense of movement that the works show a strong vitality. From the outline to the performance structure, space, brightness of the bar. Some people often use "Single line flat" to summarize the characteristics of Chinese painting, which is not accurate. Single line flat painting is a common feature of human early painting. Since the late Han Dynasty, the characteristics of China paintings will be difficult to use Single line flat to explain. Contour Wei purpose by painting images of the surrounding line. It is the face of the painting and the relationship between the object space, so it is a separate object from the background, to show the internal structure of this object and light distribution. Since China artists to create a unique Cunfa, scanning method and rub into, the internal structure and optical images of the distribution, not with perspective, shading, but to form the nation's unique description. From the five generation Dong Yuan "Xiaoxiang map", we can see the development and change of Chinese painting line:
五代时董源的《潇湘图》(934~960)



此画用轮廓线界定了山的空间位置和整体走势后,对山体内的各个组成部分,均以长披麻皴线条加点来表现。众多披麻皴线条与点的有序排列,一方面刻画出山岭在一定光线照耀下的皴纹,另一方面表现出山体内各个部分的有机组合,从而有效地描绘了山体的结构。这些表现结构的皴线、点与轮廓线融合后,山的雄姿秀态就尽眼底了。
The five generation Dong Yuan "Xiaoxiang map" (934 ~ 960)
It defines the mountain space location and the overall trend with the contour line, each of the mountains in part by Long pimacun to add the line. Ordered many pimacun lines and points, one hand depicts the mountain in light of the Texture, on the other hand, from the organic combination of various parts of the body, so as to effectively describe the structure of the mountain. Cun performance of these lines, points and contour integration, Hill Xiongzi show on the state of the fundus.
此画没有用透视法照样画出物象的空间和距离,是由于画家灵活运用了皴线和点。画面的远景部分,画家用的是较短、较小、较淡的皴线与点;近景部分,则用较长、较浓的皴点;山体背阴的部分,用较浓的短线与点;各个山头用重迭法画出,画家用这些方法表现出山体的纵深感。有人认为这种方法没有透视法科学准确。当然,按透视法画出的物象显很逼真。但是,格式塔心理学家指出:透视法的准确是建立在透视缩短与透视变形基础上的,它仅仅是在二维空间表现三维幻觉,是对眼睛的“欺骗”。因此,我们不必用透视法来苛求用皴、点与重迭法来表现物象空间距离——“深度”的中国画。
此画没有用明暗法也画出了物象的光分布。这是因为画家利用皴线有疏有密的排列与部分留自来描绘山体的明部与暗部。显然,这幅画似乎没有固定光源和合乎比例的明暗层次(亮度梯度),但这样的作品并不像有人说的只强调线条韵律不要光,而是采用垂直光分布、正面光(正面留白)来表现光亮,背面、侧面用密集的短皴与点来表现。这种特殊的正面光与明暗分布法,源于道家哲学“万物负阴而抱阳(或者是影响万物自身的因素就是阴阳的调和问题)”的观点。董源之后,画家们又把皴与擦融为一体,进一步表现了物象的明暗层次,色彩的渲染对用皴擦表现光分布也起了辅助作用。这样在表现光的过程中,各种线条一直起着主导作用。董源作品中的线条组合,不仅表现了物象的光分布,而且表现了空气的湿度——南方群山的华滋湿润、苍茫葱郁。这是在西洋画中难以见到的。
It does not use the same perspective to draw images of space and distance, is due to the painter Cracked line and flexibility in the use of the point. The vision part of the screen, the painter used Cracked line and shorter, smaller, lighter; close range, with a long, thick shade of the mountain cracked; part, with short and thick; all the hills with overlap method to draw, the artists use these methods show the mountain feeling of depth. Some people think this method is not scientific and accurate. Of course, according to the perspective of the images painted in very realistic. However, the Gestalt psychologists point out that the accuracy of perspective is based on the perspective of the perspective and the perspective of deformation, it is only in the two-dimensional space of three-dimensional illusion, is the eye of the "deception". Therefore, we do not have to use perspective to expect with Cun, the points of overlap and show images from space - the "depth" of the Chinese painting.
This painting is of no use to draw the shades of images of light distribution. This is because the artists use Cracked line there is a sparse arrangement with the dense part of the mountain and the darker left unsolicited depict. Obviously, this picture seems to have no fixed source and proportionate shades (Luminance gradient), but this is not someone that works only emphasize the rhythm of lines do not light, but the vertical distribution of light, positive light (The paper is blank) to express the light back and the side surface with short and dense strokes point performance. This special positive light and light distribution, derived from the Taoist philosophy, "All things are and Yang (or the influence of all things is the factor of the harmony of yin and Yang"). After Dong Yuan, the painters and the Chapped and wipe integration, further demonstrated the shades images, the color rendering performance of Chapped and wipe distribution also played a supporting role. So in the light of the process, a variety of lines has been playing a leading role. Dong Yuan works in the combination of lines, not only the distribution of images of light, and the performance of the China moist Lush Cangmang, the southern mountains air humidity. It's hard to see in Western painting.
从”存形”的线条到抒情的线条。在唐代以前,中国画以反映社会生活,描绘明君、忠臣、烈士、贞女等人物为主。在留下历史人物真容方面,绘画优于其它著作,所以陆机说:“存形莫善于画。(表述事物的形体的,最好的办法是画画,没有比画画更好的了)”习附(学习这样)的绘画线条功能主要在服务于“存形(保存形状)”,即真实描绘客观对象。
Lyrical lines of "Performance shape" to the Lyric line. Before the Tang Dynasty, Chinese painting to reflect the social life, depicting wise monarch, official loyal his sovereign, Martyr, Virgin and other personage based. After leaving the true historical figures, the painting is superior to other works, so Lu Ji said: "Performance shape The best way is to draw. (describe the shape of things, the best way is to draw, no better than a draw) "(learning) the habit of painting lines in service at the main" Performance shape (save shape) ", namely realdescription objective object.
     自从宋(960—1279年)、元(1271年—1368年)以后,中国画由以人物为主,逐步转为以山水、花鸟为主,由反映社会生活、描绘历史与现实人物为主,转向以描绘自然景物来折射社会生活,抒发画家感情为主。为了服从这一目的,画家们对线条作了大胆的革新,创造了具有独立审美价值的抒情线条。这种抒情线条与写实性线条的主要差别在以下两个方面。第一、抒情线条特别重视线条的自身张力。所谓张力,简而言之,就是一种相反相成的力。线条张力可分组合张力与自身张力两种。顾恺之仅用横线条与倾斜卷曲的线条组合,就刻画出了人物的形貌与动态。然而他用的这种线条均匀细长,自身并无明显张力。
Since the Song Dynasty (960 - 1279) (1271 - 1368), yuan, Chinese painted by the main characters, and gradually turned to landscapes, flowers and birds mainly, by the reflection of social life, depicting the history and reality of the main characters, to describing the natural scenery to reflect social life, express feelings of painting. In order to comply with this goal, painters have made bold innovations to the line, creating an independent aesthetic value of Lyrical lines. The main difference between the Lyrical lines and realistic lines in the following two aspects. First, Lyrical lines special emphasis on the line of tension. The so-called tension, in short, is a kind of both opposite and complementary force. Line tension can be divided into two kinds of tension and tension. Gu kaizhi only horizontal lines and tilt curly lines portfolio, depicts a figure on the morphology and dynamics. However, he used this line is long and thin, there is no obvious tension.
梁楷的《六祖斫竹图》、

   倪云林的《紫芝山房图》、

华岩的《金谷园图》等,  


就与顾恺之的线条不同了,其线条借鉴了书法线条的特点,自身具有明显的张力。画家在画线条时,不仅像书法家那“欲左先右”、“欲上先下”,而且要使线条有虚有实、有曲有直、有浓有淡、有轻有重、有粗有细、有断有续、有行有留等等。把以前平直、均匀、细韧的线条变得曲折顿挫、千姿百态,极富情致。画家复杂多变的情感,借助这种多姿多变的线条得到了充分的宣泄。这正是中国画线条发展到高级阶段所呈现的奥秘与难以企及之处,它是几十个画家共同创造的成果。
Liang Kai's "Liuzu Cut the bamboo Painting", liuzu Zhuo Ni Yunlin "Rosie real Painting", Hua mountain rock "Jinguyuan Painting" etc., and the line is different from the line, the line drawing on the characteristics of the calligraphy line, its own obvious tension. The painter in the painting lines, not only like that "Towards the left before's" right ",towards upper  First down", and to make the line, does a song straight, thick with short, light weight, coarse and fine, there have continued off and will stay there, etc.. The previous straight, uniform, fine lines become tough duncuo twists and turns, full of interest in different poses and with different expressions. The painter's complex and changeable emotion, with the help of this changeable line, has been fully vented. This is the mystery of China painting lines to the advanced stage of development and it is difficult to reach in, dozens of artists work together to create results.
第二、抒情线条并不是自然状态的线条,而是有笔法的线条。中国画笔法主要是指用笔方法。它是中国画的另一个重要奥秘。中国画笔法,除了大家熟知的不同于西洋画的执笔法之外,最值得重视的是运笔法,而且不同类型的线条有不同的运笔法。运笔法也就是笔锋接触纸面时怎样运行的方法,它有多种形式,大体上可分为空间运动形式与时间运动形式。不同的轮廓线,不同的皴法、描法,其线条的空间与时间运动形式是不相同的。空间运动形式有几十种,主要是提按、旋转(绞转)、平动、摆动、从容流行等。时间运动形式也有多种,主要是疾迟(包括快速、中速、慢速)、行留、节奏、涩行与跳动等。中国画家自从掌握了这种笔法后,不仅能“牵着线条去散步”,而且能凭借它翱翔于艺术的王国,刻画各种物象,抒发复杂情感,表现不同个性。这种笔法正被现代画家继承、发展,具有很强的生命力。



Second, the lyric line is not the natural state lines, but a technique of the lines. Chinese brushwork painting mainly refers to a pen method. It is another Chinese painting Important mystery. China style painting, in addition to the written law known as the western painting is different from the most worthy of attention is the transport technique, but also different types of lines have different Yunbi law. Yunbi law is how to run the Bifeng contact paper, it has a variety of forms, can be divided into space and time form of sports movement form. Different contour lines, different Texturing methods, tracing method, the line of space and time movement is not the same. The spatial form of dozens of sports, mainly to the rotation (able to), move, swing, leisurely fashion. Time has a variety of movement forms, mainly late disease (including fast, medium and slow), to stay the pace, such as Shibuya bank and the beating. China painter since mastered the technique, not only can the holding line to walk, but also by virtue of its flying in the realm of art, depicting various images, complex feelings, different personality. This technique is being modern painter inheritance and development, has the very strong vitality.
现代中国画中的线条。中国画线条经过宋、元、明、清众多画家的创造,达到新的高度。然而艺无止境,随着时代的前进,人们审美能力的提高,中国画线条仍在发展。最近几十年,特别是最近十几年,不少现代中国画家在继承前人技法的基础上,创造了许多前无古人的新线条。
Lines in modern Chinese painting. Chinese painting lines through the song, yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the creation of many artists to reach a new height. However, art endless, along with the progress of the times, people's aesthetic ability, Chinese painting lines are still developing. In recent decades, especially in recent years, many modern Chinese painters in succession on the basis of previous techniques, has created many new lines with no predecessors.
例如,李可染创造了深邃含蓄的“金错刀式”的线条;朱屺瞻创造厂老辣雄健的“铁干银钩式”的线条;刘文西创造了长于描绘北方人物古朴刚劲的线条;黄永玉创造了曲折多姿的“不连贯”线条;吴冠中创造了极富韵律美的与点分离的长线条;黄胄创造了具有力度美的近似面的宽线条;周韶华创造了线与面、线与色混融一体的具有面的效果的线条;富中奇创造了具有装饰美的表现乡土情结的线条;邱笑秋、宋雨桂等创造了以色彩笔触与水墨线条相融合的新线条等等。这些线条的创造,丰富了中国画的表现力与抒情功能。关注绘画艺术本体中点、线、面、笔墨等抽象的艺术形式;关注绘画空间上的模糊性所引发的观众的想象与再创造。因而,中国传统绘画艺术具有象征、写意、表现的基本特征。以想象真实代替视觉真实是它有别于西方古典写实性艺术的特征,也是中国画诗意化的体现方式。在观察与表现手法上,中国画“外师造化,中得心源(向大自然学习,总结出属于自己的方法)”(张躁语)。并不是完全照抄模仿自然的客观物象,而是加入了创造者很强的主观色彩,即在造化自然的基础上,有所思想,有所寄意。  当前,中国画家正在越来越多地使用墨彩与色彩,全色彩“没骨画”得到了长足的发展。但是,线条并没有被削弱,更不会消失,而是在不断创新中形成新的形态、获得新的生命力,显现出更有时代特点的东方绘画韵味。




For example, Li Keran created a profound implication of "the wrong knife style" lines; Zhu Qizhan plant LaoLa Xiongjian create the "iron stem Yingou" lines; Liu Wenxi created good at describing the north of the ancient lines Gangjin; Huang Yongyu created a variety of twists and turns "incoherent" lines; Wu Guanzhong created a beautiful rhythm separation points and the long lines; Huang Zhou has created a beauty of the strength of the approximate width of the lines; Zhou Shaohua created the Line and surface, Line and color Mixing and melting with the results of the line; Fu Zhongqi has created a decorative beauty on the performance of the native complex line; Qiu Xiaoqiu and Song Yugui created the color strokes and ink lines of the integration of new lines and so on. The creation of these lines enriches the expressive power and lyric function of Chinese painting. Pay attention to the abstract art form such as the middle point, line, surface and Chinese ink of the painting art; pay attention to the imagination and re creation of the audience caused by the fuzziness in the painting space. Therefore, the traditional Chinese painting art has the basic characteristics of symbol, freehand brushwork and . It is not only different from the western classical realistic art, but also the embodiment of Chinese painting in the way of imagination. In the observation and performance practices, the Chinese painting "The study nature of, Get own knowledge (learning from nature, summed up their own method)" (Zhang Zao). Not simply copy the object imitation of nature, but joined the creators of the highly subjective, that is some thought natural on the basis of fortune, Have, some, meaning. Currently, Chinese painters are increasingly using ink color and color, full-color painting without but outline forms achieved by washes of ink and color has been a considerable development. However, the lines have not been weakened, but will not disappear, but in the continuous innovation in the formation of a new form, to obtain new vitality, showing a more contemporary characteristics of Oriental painting charm.


待续


To be continued



顾绍骅_fPQeY 发表于 2017-7-19 11:40:05


四、     中国画色彩的魅力
我国古代绘画从来就重视色彩的运用,历代画论对色彩的研究达到很高的水平,古代画家很早就总结了季节、气候不同所引起的物象色彩的变化,并谈到冷热色彩的运用。
[唐]王维在《山水论》中论道:“有雨不分天地,不辨东西,……雨霁则云收天碧,薄雾菲微,山添翠润,日近斜晖。早景则千山欲睡,雾霭微微,朦胧残月,气色昏迷。晚景则山衔红日,帆卷江渚,……春景则雾锁烟笼,长烟引素,水如蓝染,山色渐青。夏景则古木蔽天,绿水无波。……秋景则天如水色,簇簇幽林,……冬景则借地为雪,樵者负薪,渔舟倚岸,水浅沙平。”说明这时我国山水画家对气候、朝夕、季节色彩的变化有了更细致深入的分析,并运用到绘画创作中去。



Four, the charm of Chinese painting color
Always pay attention the use of painting in ancient China to color, the study of color history painting reached a high level, the ancient painters have long summed up the season and climate changes caused by different color images, and hot and cold on the use of color.
[Tang] Wang Wei in "landscape theory" in Chinese painting performance says: "When it rains Is not divided into heaven and earth, Do not know East or west,...... The rain stopped Collection The blue sky, A thin Very slight, mountain scenery Green Moist, Evening sun Low skew rays Cloud (Show). Morning scenery then Thousand mountains Sleepy, Little fog, The hazy moon, Heavenly dark obscure is. Evening scenery then On hill Embedded the The Crimson Sunset, Sail volume River water Title The is in,...... Spring scenery then Dense Smoke cage, Long smoke white Is, Water as blue, Gradually the green mountains is, fog. The summer scenery is trees With foliage Blot the sky cover the sun and, Green water No wave Ancient out then luxuriant....... Autumn senery then The Such as color water, Clusters of woods sky is,...... Winter scene then borrow a of land snow expanse of whiteness, Wood cutter Shoulder Vast, The fishing boat against the shore piece, Shallow water Sand flat leaning, For was Fuelwood." This shows that China's landscape painters on climate, Day and night, seasonal changes in color have a more detailed and in-depth analysis, and applied to painting.

[宋]郭熙在《林泉高致》中指出:“水色:春绿,夏碧,秋青、冬黑。天色:春晃,夏碧,秋净,冬黯。”郭熙是中国古代大画家,又是杰出的绘画理论家,他概括地总结了水色和天色的季节变化。 [清]唐岱在《绘事发微》中说道:“山有四时之色,风雨晦明,变更不一,非着色以像其貌。所谓春山艳冶而如笑,夏山苍翠而如滴,秋山明净而如淡,冬山惨淡而如睡,此四时之气也。” [清]沈宗骞在《芥舟学画编》中也生动而具体地介绍四季风景的色彩画法:“春景欲其明媚,凡草坡树梢,须极鲜研,而他处尤黯淡欲以显之。故作春景,不可多施嫩绿之色。-……夏景欲其葱翠,山顶石颠,须绿面加青,青面加草绿。…秋景欲其明净,疏林衰草,白雾苍葭,……冬景欲其黯淡,一切景物,惟松柏竹及老树者,可用老绿,余惟淡赭和黑而已。”形象地描述四季色彩的特点,说明中国画也必须用色彩表现季节和气候的变化。



[song] Guo Xi in "Lin Quan Gao Zhi" pointed out: "color: green spring, summer autumn and winter green, black green. The spring and summer autumn winter net, dark green." Guo Xi is China ancient painters, painting is an outstanding theorist, he summed up the general water color of weather and seasonal changes. [Qing Dynasty] Tang Dai said in "In the painting": "mountain There are four seasons (spring, summer, autumn and winter Color Wind and rain Dark), and bright, change Not a, Non coloring As to its appearance. So-called Spring mountain Pretty and coquettish Like a girl's smile, The summer mountain green drops, Akiyama Bright, As clean as light, Winter Hill Gloomy And like sleep, this Four seasons appearance." [clear] Shen Zongqian in "Mustard boat painting series Vividly and concretely" in the four seasons of color landscape painting: "Spring scenery to its bright Any grass, slope Treetop, Must Extremely fresh Beautiful, And other places Particularly bleak therefore Highlight it. A spring, Must not many use tender Green color. -...... The summer scenery Want make it A wild profusion of vegetation, the top stone top surface shall be green with green, green and green.... The autumn to clear, Sparse woods Withered grass, White cloud Old trees New reed,...... Winter landscape its bleak, all scenery, Only pine, cypress, bamboo the old tree, available old green, I only leave ochre dull and black. And." Describe the characteristics of the four seasons color, indicating that Chinese painting must also use color to reflect the seasonal and climatic changes.

沈宗骞还谈到人体的色彩画法:“人之颜色,由少及老随时而易,婴孩之时,肌嫩理细,色彩晶莹,当略现粉光,少施墨晕,要如花朵初放之色。盛年之际,气足血旺,骨骼隆起,当墨主内拓,色由外提,要有光华发越之象。若中年以后,气就衰而欲敛。色虽润而带苍,棱角折痕,俱属全显,当以墨植骨,色以融神,要使肥泽者浑厚而不磨棱,瘦削者清峻而不晓刻。若在老年,则皮绉血衰,折痕深嵌,气日衰而渐近苍茫,色纵腴而少憔悴,甚或垢若冻梨,或绉如枯木,当全向墨求,以合其形。屡用色渍,以呈其色。要极其斑剥而不类于尘滓,极其巉岩而自得其融和。凡此尚特言其大概耳。至于灵变之处,非可概视,如人皆以凸处色宜淡,而不知头面之上其突出处动冲风日,则其色必深。其洼处风日少到,则其色必浅。……又人皆以妇人及少年之色宜嫩白嫩红,而不知少年及妇人亦有极苍色者。中年往及老年之人亦有极嫩色者,然少而色苍,究是少年之神色,而不与老年类,老而色嫩,究是老年之气色,而不与少年同。(“人的容颜,由少到老随着时间的变化而改变,婴孩之时,肌肤嫩、纹理细,色彩晶莹,应当略现粉光,少用墨晕染,要如花朵初放时候的色彩。盛年的时候,气血旺足,骨骼生长完好,应当以墨线为主,墨线在内,色彩在外,形成对比;要有青春焕发的容貌。到了中年以后,气血就衰减内敛了。容貌虽然润泽,但是已经带有苍白,皮肤松弛,皱纹慢慢显现出来,用墨线作为“骨头”,色彩融会后使得神采出现,要使肥胖的人浑厚而不象是“磨了棱角”的,清瘦的人清峻而不是象“刀削”一样刻板。如果是老年,则皮肤绉纹多,气血衰弱,绉折痕深嵌,气血日渐衰减靠近苍茫,容貌即使是丰满,并且很少憔悴(操心),即便是这样,他也象垃圾或者被冷冻后的梨子,或者皱纹象枯木一样,画的时候应当全部用墨,这样来符合他的形状。多次用混合色,来呈现他的颜色。要全面反映他斑剥的效果而不能像垃圾,就像陡峭、险峻的山峰,虽然高大险峻,然而,非常和谐不会倾倒。凡是这类特殊的,大都如此处理。至于变化之处,不可等同视之,如同人都是以凸处的色彩最好淡一些,而不知头面之上,他突出的地方是被太阳晒、风雨吹打的地方,所以他的颜色必然深。他的低洼处,被太阳晒、风雨吹打的时候少,所以他的颜色必然浅。……又说,人都是以女人和少年的皮肤颜色,最好是表现为嫩白嫩红,而不知少年和女人也有非常苍白颜色的人。中年向老年转变的人,也有非常嫩皮肤色的人,然而这样的人少,而皮肤色显得苍白,究竟是少年的精神与颜色,而不与老年相同,老而皮肤嫩,终究是老年的气色,而不与少年同。“)“对人体肤色因性别、年龄、健康情况而有不同的特点说得细致深入。尤其能辩证地分析遍规律和特殊现象的联系,真是一篇精辟的色彩学的论述,值得我们去欣赏与学习。



Shen Zongqian also talked about the human body color painting: "people of color, from youth to old age, with the passage of time and changing; the baby, Tender skin texture Exquisite, Crystal color, Less application Ink when Light powder, Light color Fuzzy part Fresh flowers, like the color. People in prime time, Qi of energy adequate Blood flourishing, Bony eminence, when the Ink extension interior, the color from the outside, to have One's face with health Many hair like glowing. If after middle age, Qi middle-jiao energy the decline in order of On convergence. Although the color of the run with pale, Sharp creases, Are all Full display, When to ink Do bone, colourIn order to integrate into God, In order to make Obese people Plump Without Chamfering, Ema Ciated man Lean rather not No meat but. If in old age Is the, skin crepe, Weakness of blood vessels Skin embedded, deep creases, Qi of middle-jiao decline and asymptotic Cangmang, Skin color vertical low and less haggard, Even the skin looks dirty Just like, Frozen pear, Such as dead wood or crepe, Such performance When the omni-directional ink, Use it to represent shape. Always use block surface, To show its Color color. Must extremely Intricate appearance In class Dust color Without sediment. Extremely steep and get its own cliffs integration. Such a similar situation, probably all the way to deal with. As for the flexible place can not, be generalized, as people are in a prominent place, applying color to the light, and I do not know th E head above protrusion, exposed to weather in place, its color be deep. The low-lying, less exposed the weather, its color will be shallow. to, the will...... Also said that people are women and young children's skin color, it is best to show tender tender and white red, but I do not know the young and women have very pale color. The middle-aged to elderly people change, also has a very delicate skin color, but this is less, and the skin color pale, what is the spirit and the color of the teenager, but not with the same old, old skin tender, it is the old color, but not with the same boy. Shen Zongqian "on the human skin color due to gender, age, health, and the characteristics of different characteristics in detail. In particular, dialectical analysis of the relationship between the law and the special phenomenon, is a brilliant color of the discourse, it is worth us to appreciate and learn.
所谓生动就是十分的节奏,物象变化运动的节奏,现代社会已进入数码时代,韵律是高速运动的,画家的思想无法逃避现实,要把对当今的思想感情融进画中借助绘画浯言表达自己的情感-所以写意即写今时代之意,写现实生活之感;之所以称;为色彩写意,也正是当今绚丽斑斓的多彩世界需要感官刺激,绘画已走入国际化,是在继承传统基础上跟上时代潮流。正如石涛说的“笔墨当随时代”色彩的层次具有精致的特征,能在心灵甲唤起;'辞不能表达的微妙感情,然而表像的第一层刺激并不会因人们只追求本质而消亡。



what is called  a  vivid:  is very vivid rhythm, the Things change of images in sports, modern society has entered the digital era, the rhythm is the high-speed movement, the painter's thoughts cannot escape from reality, to today's thoughts and feelings into the words to express their feelings - so that the freehand brushwork write this era meaning by painting Wu, write a sense of real life; the reason for that; it is also the color of freehand brushwork, magnificent and gorgeous and colorful world needs sensory stimulation, painting has entered the international, is on the basis of inheriting the tradition to keep up with the trend of the times. As Shi Tao said: "when the ink with the times" with the level of exquisite color features in Spiritual calling; "speech can not express the subtle feelings, but the first layer of shape will not stimulated Surface, because People Only pursue essence and die out.

色对人的感官刺激仍时时存在,唤醒人们不要完个忽视它,并与此产生了墨对色彩世界的表现足与不足的论:光色事实的空间中的确有无法为水墨所完全复合进的自然客体;“日照香炉生紫烟”的紫是多么细腻观察的心得。“朝辞白帝彩云间”的彩云,“千里莺啼绿映红”的富丽,“窗含西岭千秋雪”的明媚,“苍山如海残阳如血”的豪壮、其强烈的色彩视觉刺激也不能不逆反而浮现出光彩照人的影像,流露于艺术家的心底、笔间;那些超凡脱俗的文人,也要思考以色彩补水墨之不足了,尤其是花鸟画中“黄家富贵 、徐熙野逸”( 在中国花鸟画的发展历史中,素来有“黄家富贵,徐熙野逸”的说法。 “黄家”指的是五代西蜀至北宋初的画家黄筌和他的两个儿子,他们先后供奉宫廷,擅长画珍禽异兽,风格富贵华丽;后者指的是徐熙,他也是五代南唐至北宋初人,所画大多为野生花卉及常见之禽鸟,画风野逸素雅。)兰竹的表现很有特点。各领风骚:这从文人心理上或许讲是补水墨之不足,但事实上:是平分秋色,色彩本身即具有时空的自然归赋与心知的随意流露,花开花落几乎年年如血;朝朝暮暮天天重演,高原草地则天壮地雄,锦绣江南则山清水秀,时空的自然归赋重迭也白成类相,花色、云露、黄土、青草、绿水等等无不如此,这是更为丰富多彩的绘画艺术天地。所以,巧意色彩足顺应时代的发而产生的,艺术家的任务是如何找到自己的时代语言去表达那份真挚的情感。



The color of the sensory stimulation is always there, awakening people don't ignore it end months, and produces a color ink on the performance of the world and the lack of adequate theory with this: light and color in the fact that there is indeed a space for the ink can not be fully into the compound the natural objects; "Sunshine censer living purple smoke" purple is how delicate observation of the experience. "Leave the white Emperor city in the morning when bright clouds surrounded" "Thousands of miles south cloud, of the, Yangtze River, The peach trees were in bloom and the willows were turning green" "From the window to rich, see Xiling the snow" Deep green hills ", bright, endless like the sea; Sunset, the setting sun like blood", the heroic intense color visual stimulation also have to inversion arises out of a glamorous image, the artist's pen in his heart; those otherworldly literati, but also think about ink color to the lack, especially the flower and bird painting "Huang family riches and honourXu Xi Relax and elegant" (Chinese; in the history of the development of Chinese flower and bird painting, has always been a "Huang family riches and honour, Xu Xi Relax and Elegant; "". "Surname Huang family" refers to the Five Dynasties to the early Northern Song Dynasty painter Huang Quan and his two sons, they have palace be an official, Good at painting rare fowls and strange animals, rich and gorgeous style; the latter refers to Xu Xi, he is the five generation to the early Northern Song Dynasty, the paintings are mostly Wild flowers and Common birds) and wild style, simple and elegant. Orchid and bamboo performance is very characteristic. Each The leading position: This is perhaps the literati psychological stresses is the Creation of painting Chinese, but the fact is: Go halves on a fifty-fifty basis, the color itself is the natural time and space to give intelligence the free show, flowers bloom almost years like blood; every morning and evening every day to repeat, grassland The strong male, Jinxiu Jiangnan is picturesque scenery, the natural time and space to assign overlap or white into color, cloud phase, dew, loess, grass, water and so on are all true, it is more rich and colorful painting art. Therefore, the meaning of the color is full of the times, the artist's task is to find their own language to express the true feelings.

待续
To be continued



顾绍骅_fPQeY 发表于 2017-7-19 11:43:38
五、   中国画的用光
一位大画家曾说过,一位美术家的重要性,是由他引入美术语言中创新符号数量的多寡决定的。中国古典绘画中的光,大都是表现明暗分布的。现代中国画中的光,不仅表现明暗分布,而且成为刻画形象、突出主题、表现画家情感的新艺术语言。现代中国画家的这种创造,对中国画的革新与发展功不可没。对此我们必须给予足够的重视。

Five, the use of Chinese painting
A great painter once said that the importance of an artist is determined by the number of creative symbols in the art language. Most of the light in Chinese classical painting is the distribution of light and shade. The light of modern Chinese painting not only shows the distribution of light and shade, but also becomes a new artistic language to describe the image, highlight the theme, and express the painter's emotion. The creation of modern Chinese painters, the reform and development of Chinese painting. We must pay enough attention to this.

王履《华山图》  

Wang Lv's "Huashan picture"

明初画家王履以自然为师,所作《华山图》册页四十幅,  


皆由写生观察得来,光感甚强,故山石明亮坚实,气势雄伟;而冷谦的《白岳图》用笔下:




用焦墨,干笔擦出的山石。明暗分明,光感显著,尢其画幅中部树林的顶稍留出光亮部位,与山石白云亮部协调统一,深得自然光影之妙  浙派画家继承南宋水墨苍劲的画法,全部以斧头劈开木材时显现的纹理效果及拖泥带水阴影画法的用笔勾画,多近块的造型,放山头每出现明显的光感。试看张平山的《山雨欲来图》上部的山峰,

竟有类似逆光的感觉,更属奇特。吴派画家唐寅十分注重画的明度,如《春山伴侣》中的山石,明部过渡自然、暗部对比强烈、调子准确,显得整幅画面明媚动人,非对光的明度有深入观察不能表现至此。

清代力倡革新的石涛,所作山水极有创意,并且“搜尽奇峰打草稿”,努力表现对自然景物的真切感受、其画山石每留出空白面,而在山顶和山脚用浓墨衬托,显得光洁明净,水墨淋漓,画面中山水更得光影微妙之趣。他的《搜尽奇峰图卷》   和《双清阁图卷》中,



对树林的光影表现更是奇妙之至、在中国画“用光”史上值得大笔一书的是金陵八家之首的龚贤—其作品墨韵深厚、层次丰富,在乌黑亮泽中,逼迫出强烈的光感。




In the early Ming Dynasty painter Wang Lv nature as a teacher, as the "Huashan picture" picture album, all by the sketch observation, the light is very strong, so the rocks bright solid, magnificent; and Leng qian's "White mountain picture" under the pen Baiyue: Thick dry ink, the dry brush wipe out the rocks. Brightness is clear, light is significant, especially in the middle of the wood frame top slightly left light parts, and rocks, white clouds of harmony, deep natural light and wonderful Zhejiang painter Chinese Ink in Southern Song Dynasty inherited the vigorous brushwork, texture and make a pen sketch all appear in shadow drawing an axe when wood, nearly block the other, on the hill every apparent light. Look at Zhang Pingshan's "Mountain Rain Coming soon picture" the upper part of the mountain, there is a similar backlight feel more strange. Wu painter Tang Yin attaches great importance to painting the lightness, such as "Spring mountain partner" in the rocks, Ming transition nature, strong contrast, dark tone of the picture is accurate, beautiful and moving, not to light brightness in-depth observation not so far. The Qing Dynasty advocated innovation Shi Tao, the landscape is very creative, and "do search Qifeng scratch", trying to show real feelings, on the nature of the painted rocks each set aside a blank surface, and the edges with foil in the top and bottom, is clean and bright and clean, ink dripping, the picture is more delicate landscape lighting fun. His "Do search Qifeng Picture scroll" and "Shuangqing Pavilion Picture scroll", the lighting performance of the woods is wonderful, in China to draw " The lighting performance of the woods is wonderful, in China to draw "is a book with large light" in the history of the Eight Masters of Nanjing first Chinese painting the works of Gong Xian - ink rhyme deep, rich in glossy black, forcing a strong light.

对林木及点景物的渲染也常显出光的神秘,对后人颇多启迪;需要指出的是,晚清随西方教会进来的所谓传教土画家,如郎世宁、艾启蒙等,他们基本上是用中国画的工具和题材形式画西洋画,画面全按西洋透视明暗关系刻刨,所作无论花鸟动物或人物风景,都是典型的“素描加勾线”式的画法,因其缺少笔墨气韵和情趣,缺乏中国画的传统气质,故亦与本文试图建立之“用光”系统无涉。综上所述,传统中国绘画中,历代都不乏对光有所观察和表现的画家或作品,尽管这些表现大都是无意识的,而程度上与我们现代人对光的观察和理解差别甚大,但也可证明“光”作为绘画上二不可或缺的一种因素,在我国千百年来的绘画实践中确已普遍地存在着,并对我国绘画的发展进步有着不容忽视的作用。





The rendering of trees and point of view often shows the mystery of light,a lot of inspiration for future generations; that is, in the late Qing Dynasty with the Western church in the so-called missionary painters, such as Lang Shining, Ai Qimeng, etc., they are basically using Chinese painting tools and theme painting of Western painting, the whole picture by Western painting Perspective Shading the relationship characterization, whether birds animal or human landscape, is a typical "Sketch plus Hook line" of the painting, because of its lack of The spirit of pen and ink and temperament and interest, Traditional temperament China lack of painting, and hence this paper tries to establish the "light" system for free. To sum up, the traditional China painting, there are some light on the observation and performance of artists or works, although the performance is mostly unconscious, and the extent of our modern light on observation and understanding of the difference is very large, but also proved that the "light" as a painting on the two essential factors. In the practice of painting in China for thousands of years has been in widespread existence, development and progress of China's painting has a role can not be ignored.

中国画以线条为主要造型手段,特别是自宋元以来,文入画家一直“以水墨为上”{以中国画传统的毛笔、墨汁(包含水的运用)为最佳选择”,},把光色放在次要位置,而且光与色又处于分离状态,所以有人误认为:“中国画却是线的韵律。光不要了,影也不要了。”其实,画面上如果没有光,便一片漆黑,那叫什么画呢?所 以宋代的韩拙说:“笔以立其形质,墨以分其阴阳。{用毛笔建立其形壮、质地(中国画用线条来造型),用墨色来分出背光面与受光面。}”清代沈宗骞进一步指 出:“画之色,非丹铅青绛之谓,乃在浓淡明晦之间。”“阴阳”、“明晦”中的“阳”、“明”指的就是光,{中国画的颜色,不是红、白、蓝、绿、绛这样的说 法,而是在浓、淡、明、暗之间。“阴阳”(中国道家文化的阴阳学说:“天是阳、地是阴,男人是阳、女人是阴,受光面是阳、背光面是阴)}只是中国画家对光 色的认识是哲学的、经验的罢了。因此,中国画家没有原生影、派生影、全明暗、全色彩等概念,而是把画面上的光分成正面光、固定光、平面光等。现代中国画家 受到现代哲学、现代科学与现代人审美要求的影响,其画面上对于光的处理发生了巨大的变化,在保留部分中国人审美习惯的同时,又大胆突破正面光、固定光、平 面光的束缚,创造了新的光色语言。用强光、顶光、开光取代正面光。所谓正面光,就是光线从正面平射到物象上。正面是阳,是受光面;背面是阴,是背光面。正面光的表现源于道家思想。



China painting lines as the main means of modeling, especially since the song yuan, the painter has been into "ink on the" to Chinese {traditional brush and ink painting (using a water) is the best choice, the color on the}, secondary position, and light and color in the separation state. So some people mistakenly think: "it is Chinese line painting rhythm. No light, no shadow." In fact, if there is no light on the screen, it is a dark, what is called painting? So song Han Han said: The brush is to build its shape, Ink used distinguish between thick and light, yin and Yang the to. {brush to establish its shape and texture (China painting lines, with the other) to separate the ink back surface and smooth. } "Shen Zongqian of the Qing Dynasty further pointed out:" the color paintings, non Red, white, blue, dull-red that is in Thick, light, and bright dark." "Yin and Yang", "bright and dark" in the "Yang" and "Ming" refers to the light, {Chinese painting color, not red, white, blue, green, purple this argument, but in Thick, light, and bright dark. "Yin and Yang" (Chinese Taoist Culture: Yin and Yang, the theory of yin and Yang of the two opposing principles in nature, the former feminine and negative the latter masculine and positive, "the sky is Yang, Yin, Yang, Yin man is a woman is, the light is Yang, the back surface is Yin} only) China painter understanding of color is the philosophy and experience. Therefore, the Chinese painters do not have the concept of the original shadow, the derivative film, the full shade, the full color, but the picture is divided into positive light, fixed light, flat light, etc.. The modern China painter by modern philosophy, modern science and modern aesthetic requirements, the picture for light treatment has undergone tremendous changes, in the retention of some Chinese aesthetic habits at the same time, bold breakthrough, positive light fixed light, planar light, created a new color language. With the light, top light, light instead of positive light. The so-called positive light, is light images from the front Shedao on. Yang is positive, is smooth; the back is cloudy, is backlit face. The performance of positive light originates from taoism.
《老子·四十二章》中说:“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物,万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。(万物都是矛盾双方对立统一而存在,阴阳环抱才中气调和;冲起来,也就是气机要运动起来。)”“负阴抱阳”(即背面阴正面阳)是中国画光分布的一般法则。现代中国画家受现代光学、色彩学的影响,认识到以阳光为主的光源是多向的,光可以从正面来,也可以从上面、侧面、背面来,物象的受光面与画家对受光面的处理,也是多种多样的。在现代中国画中,有很多人使用强光。强烈的光线集中在画面的中部而不一定是正面。它的作用不仅在强调画面光的分布,也在强调某种意义,因而成为一种新的造型语言。以全景式构图,多空间的重迭组合去表现自然的“无限”。画面上的近景、远景均为弱光与暗部。画中的云水由强光表示。画面比较抽象,有巨然《秋山问道图》的意蕴,体现出入居于云水之间对人生、宇宙作形而上的思考与超越。这是美学上的思考与哲学上的思考的互融。此强光虽仍然是哲学的、经验的,但已完全不是道家的“道”,而是融合了相对论、现代哲学与科学的“道”。



"Lao Tzu - Chapter forty-two" said: "Taoist school Give birth to a theory,One begets Two,Two begets Three,all the negative Yin and Yang, Qi and thought."(everything is between the two sides of the unity of opposites exists only in Yin and Yang surrounded by harmony; washed up, gas is confidential in motion.)" "Negative yin-yang hold" (that is, the back Yam-positiv) is a general rule of light distribution in Chinese painting. The modern Chinese painter influenced by modern optics, color, light to realize the sun is more oriented to the light, can be positive, but also from above, side, back to the light, and the images of the artists on the smooth processing, is various. In modern Chinese painting, a lot of people use strong light. Strong light is concentrated in the middle of the screen, not necessarily positive. Its role not only emphasizes the distribution of the screen light, but also emphasizes a certain meaning, thus becoming a new modeling language. A panoramic image, overlapping more space to the portfolio performance of the natural unlimited". On the screen, close-up vision of both light and dark. The water from the glare said. Comparison of abstract images, The five generation painter Ju ran "Akiyama asked picture" implication, of living in cloud water access between life and the universe for the metaphysical thinking and transcendence. This is the integration of aesthetic thinking and philosophical thinking. Although the strong light is still philosophical and experience, but it is not the Tao of Taoism, but the fusion of the theory of relativity, modern philosophy and science".
用跳动光、飘浮光取代固定光。古典画家按“负阴抱阳”的观念处理光,不考虑不同光源的光色和不同环境的光色对所画物象的影响,也不重视空气和画家视点与物象的距离对物象的影响,在表现正面光的同时,采用固定的垂直光分布。固定光使物象明暗分明、浮雕感强,但光的多样性、动态性与主观性却被隐没了。
Replacing fixed light with beating light and floating light. According to the concept of "classical painter Negative yin-yang hold light", without considering the different light source color and the color of different environment by painting images of the impact, do not pay attention to the effect of air and the images of the painter viewpoint and distance on the object, in the light of the positive performance at the same time, fixed the vertical distribution of light. Fixed light makes clear, strong sense of relief images of light and dark, but Light Diversity, Dynamic property And subjectivity Has been hidden.
现代中国画家受到现代审美动力学和欧洲印象派绘画的影响,开始打破固定光的束缚。程十发的《喂羊》、  

杨延文的《村妞》等作品中的光,

都是不规则的、跳跃的。毕建勋的《改革之年》的画面上部有几道闪电般的光,从顶部沿斜线射向中部。

这种跳动的光,使整个画面受到震动,暗示改革势头锐不可挡,似乎讲述着改革之年人们奋发向上的冲劲。这种光不是依附于物象之上的,在独立发挥自身的功能。《村妞》使我们联想到杰克逊·波洛克的某些作品,  

但又与它不同。此画是用水墨染成的大都市朦胧夜景。朦胧的夜色中,各种灯光的闪烁、跳动,表现出大都市的喧器、繁荣和彻夜的骚动。画面上的白光、红光、黄光、蓝光以及长光、短光跳跃着,互相映照,把大都市夜生活渲染得淋漓尽致。这种对光的处理,既有民族“基因”,又有现代性,因此它必然能与世界美术接轨。画家们突破了传统固定光的观念,可能得益于现代科学的影响。固定光的基本功能在描绘物象的明暗分布上,主要是客观的。现代中国画中许多飘浮之光,则带有很大的主观性。

The modern Chinese painters were influenced by the modern aesthetic dynamics and the European impressionist painting and began to break the bondage of fixed light. Cheng Shifa's "feeding sheep", Yang Yanwen's "The village girl" and other works of light, are irregular, jumping. The upper part of the picture of Bi Jianxun's "year of reform" of the A few flashes of lightning light, Along diagonal at the top in the middle. This beat the light, the entire screen by the vibration, suggesting that the momentum of reform Ruibukedang seems to be about the year of reform, people exert upward momentum. This light is not dependent on the images above, the independent play to its own. "The village girl" reminds us of some of the works of JACKSON POLLOCK, but different from it. This painting is stained with ink metropolis hazy night. Hazy night, all kinds of lights flashing, beating, showing the metropolitan Noisy sound, prosperity and the night of the be in a tumult. On the screen of white, red, yellow and blue light and long - and short jump, shine upon each other, the Metropolis nightlife played most incisive. This kind of dispose to light, both national "gene", and modernity, so it must be able to integrate with the world art. Painters have broken through the traditional concept of fixed light, possibly due to the influence of modern science. The basic function of fixed - painted in the brightness of images, mainly objective. A lot of floating light in modern Chinese painting is subjective.

张民生的《山光》中没有固定的光。强光分散在几个部位互不联系,没有统一的光源与光亮梯度,强光笼罩在某些物象之上。  


它主要不是说明物象之上真实的光分布,而是体现画家的主观意图——强调新时期山民新的生活。张海东的《红花园》,光分布更显得极不规则,随意飘浮。

强光既不遵守透视规则也不囿于光分布的固定要求,有的落在人物的上身,有的落在人物的胳膊或脚上,有的落在飞鸟的头部或背景上。白色的强光与偏冷的红花形成对比,突出表现红花园中奏笛的三女于优雅的神态。飘忽的强光使清晰的画面变得有些朦陇,呈现一种含蓄的诗意美。张广俊的《竹乡初雪》画面: 一轮皓月照亮一片被茂密竹林遮住,又时隐时现的在小山村上;这里船儿歇了,村庄“睡了”,雪儿在静静地下……;一切是多么的恬静。画家用“顶光”处理:被撒上朦胧月光的山村、小河与大地,竹林时隐时现,画中散落着白雪。

这是自然美与心灵美的和谐融合。这种美的现代感很强,又在似与不似之间表现对象,抒发了画家的情思,表现出东方艺术的韵昧。
There is no fixed "hill" in the light of Zhang Minsheng. Light scattered in several parts are not linked, there is no uniform gradient of light and bright, bright lights shrouded in some images on. It is not the main note on real images of light distribution, but the subjective intent of the painter - that the new era mountain people a new life. Zhang Haidong's "red garden", the distribution of light is very irregular, floating at random. Light does not comply with the rules of perspective is not limited to fixed light distribution requirements, and some people fall on the upper part of the body, and some people fall on the arms or legs, some fell on the head or background of the birds. White bright light and cold red flowers contrast, highlighting the red garden in the flute playing three female grace manner. Move swiftly's bright light makes a clear picture of some Meng long fuzzy, showing a subtle poetic beauty. Zhang Guangjun "Zhu Xiang First Snow screen: Haoyue lit up" a by a dense bamboo forest cover, and when the time is now hidden a small mountain village Boat have a rest;; here, the village "to sleep", Snow in the sky quietly in the underground...... How peaceful it is. Painters "top light": Meng long fuzzy Moonlight village, creek and earth, Bamboo forest now appearing, now disappearing, painted with white snow. This is beauty of nature and beauty of mind harmonious fusion. The modern sense of the beauty of this is very strong, and in the Between like and not like performance object, to express the artist's affection, showing the Oriental Art charm.
     用点光、变调光取代平面光。我国除了一部分花鸟画外,大部分山水画、工笔人物画的色彩都是平面的。平面色彩之上的光缺少层次、冷暖、明暗变化,因此是平面光。现代中国画家从我国舞台美术、民间美术和西方现代主义绘画中吸取有益的因素,采用点光、色彩变调所呈现的有层次、有变化的光,来突破传统的平面光,并使这种光成为画面灵动活泼的语言。点光,就是把强光分解成许许多多的“点”,使之散落在画面的各个部分、各个角落,使画面的动力性增强,并呈现丰富多彩的光分布。姚卫国的《希望的早晨》,整个画面是偏冷灰调子。在一片暗灰色建筑物中,到处可见白色的亮点,把一所希望小学照亮。

大大小小的亮点,似乎汇成了优美的旋律,奏响希望小学新一天的晨曲。闪烁的众多亮点,使画面富有动感,表现出早晨生机勃勃的景象。作者用被大大小小亮点包围的、饱和度不相同的偏灰紫小色块来构成画面,打破了传统重彩画的平面光画法,使画面显现出强烈的节奏感。这种节奏感的高潮在画面的远景——小学生举行升国旗仪式部分,红旗与众多白色亮点互相呼应,让人看到画面上不同形状光点的组合,都是为主题服务的。另外,我们在晁海的《晨曦》、

孙玉香的《悠悠岁月》、牛锡珠的《护林人家》等作品中,都看到了作者使用点光来取代平面光,取得了良好的表现效果。

突破平面光的另一个有效方法是采用色彩转调光。色彩转调通常是由某种色相所呈现的冷暖、明暗变化体现的。朱建平的《世纪森林之春》中的群山是微微发红的绿色,森林是蓝绿色。作者用同一色调描绘同一类型的物象(群山与森林)而使不同树木与山峦区别开来,依靠的是色调的冷暖、明暗变化。作者不用线条勾勒,完全突破平面光,使画面的光在同一色调的冷暖、明暗对比中显现出来,使画面既保留了装饰性也显得很美,洋溢着诗情。
With the point of light, replace the light plane. In addition to part of the flower and bird painting in China, most of the color of landscape painting and fine brushwork figure painting are flat. The light above the plane color is lack of level, temperature, light and shade, so it is a flat light. Modern China painters draw useful factors from China's stage arts, folk art and modern western painting, the light spot, presented by the color tone sandhi level and the changes in light, to break through the traditional flat light, and that this light a vivid and lively language. Point light, is to break down the strong light into a lot of "points", so that it is scattered in the various parts of the screen, each corner, so that the dynamic power of the screen, and a variety of light distribution. Yao Weiguo's "Morning of hope", the whole picture is partial cold gray tone. In a dark gray building, white highlights everywhere, a hope primary school light. The bright lights of all sizes, it seems Huicheng a beautiful melody, played the hope that the new primary school day morning song. Flashes of many bright spots, so that the screen is full of vitality, showing a vibrant scene in the morning. The author used was surrounded by large and small bright spot, not the same degree of saturation partial gray color purple to a small screen, breaking the traditional Zhongcai Hua painting the plane, the screen showed a strong sense of rhythm. The rhythm of the climax of the flag raising ceremony in the vision of the screen - students held the red flag with white highlights many echo each other, people see different shapes on the screen a combination of light, are the theme of the service. In addition, we Chaohai's "Dawn" Sun, Yuxiang's "Long years", "Forest Niu Xizhu's protection people Family And other works, the authors have seen the use of point to replace the light plane made a good performance effect. Another effective way to break the plane is to usecolor transfer. Color transfer is usually reflected from a certain huepresented by the well-being, brightness change. Zhu Jianping's "Century forest spring" in the mountains is slightly red green, the forest is blue-green. The author used the same color images depicting the same type (mountains and forests) and makes different distinguish between trees and mountains, depending on the tonal changes, changes in brightness. The authors do not have to draw lines, completely break the plane light, so that the screen light appeared in the same brightness, contrast between warm and cold colors, so that the screen is to retain the decorative looks beautiful, filled with poetry.
待续
To be continued



顾绍骅_fPQeY 发表于 2017-7-20 08:44:43
六、      中国画的“品位”
绘画是有层次和品位的。中国古代画论把画品分为许多层次,一般而言,妙品比能品为高,而神品又比妙品为高,高水平的画家当然应该追求最高层次——神品。而神品又必须以能品和妙品为基础,连能品都达不到,怎么能成为妙品呢同理,连妙品都达不到,又怎么能成为神品呢可见。神品离不开能品和妙品,能品和妙品是神品的必要准备和必要条件,而神品是能品和妙品的最高归宿:凡是艺术作品,都由三个层次组成。第一个层次是艺术语言。它是艺术作品的形式层面,主要包括艺术语言和形式结构。也就是各门艺术独特的表现方式和手段。在绘画中主要指线条、笔墨、色彩、构图。(如图所示:张仃 《苍山牧歌》)





  





Six, Chinese painting "grading"
Painting is a level and grade. China ancient paintings on the painting materials divided into many levels, in general, exquisite works than to reach the highest level and high works, myth, and the works than the exquisite works of high, high level of artists should pursue the highest levels of the highest level - myth, works. The highest level of myth, and the works must be able to reach the works and exquisite works as the foundation, even to work are not, how can it become exquisite works similarly, even subtle works are not, how can it become the highest level of myth, the work of the. The highest level of myth, the work cannot do without to work and exquisite works, can achieve the works and exquisite works is the prerequisite and necessary preparation for the highest level of myth, works, and the highest level of myth, work is the highest end to work and exquisite works:
All works of art are made up of three levels. The first level is the artistic language. It is the form of art works, including the artistic language and the formal structure. It is also the unique way and means of art. In painting, mainly refers to lines, ink, color, composition. (as shown in the picture: Zhang Ding "Cangshan grazing song")
这些艺术语言,不但是创造艺术形象的表现方式和手段,而且本身就具有独立的审美价值;艺术语言的运用高低,对创造艺术形象起着直接的作用,艺术家正是通过艺术语言,塑造出各种各样的艺术形象、并表达出艺术家对生活和自然的独特体验和感受。(如图所示:启功《仿古山水》)







  

The art of language, style and artistic image creation means on the one hand, second is the aesthetic value itself is independent of the language of art; the use of high and low, a direct role in the creation of artistic image, the artist is through the language of art, to create a variety of artistic images, and artists to express their life and nature the unique experience and feelings. (pictured: Qi Gong "antique landscape")

由于艺术语言在艺术作品中有着极其重要的作用,所以各门艺术都十分重视对艺术语言的研完和运用,也都十分重视艺术语言的创新和探索。艺术作品的第二个层次是艺术形象,它是艺术作品的内容美。美术作品主要塑造视觉形象、它直接付诸欣赏者的视觉感官、因而特别富有直观性、生动性、具体性。(如图所示:宋文治《写意山水》)








Because of the extremely important role of artistic language in the works of art, the art of each one pays much attention to the study and application of the artistic language. The second level is the artistic image, which is the content of the works of art. The main work of art is to shape the visual image, which is directly put into the visual sense of the viewer, so it is more intuitive, vivid and concrete. (as shown in the "Freehand landscape": Song Wenzhi)

在艺术作品中,艺术形象是艺术作品的核心和关键。在绘画中。不能为笔墨而笔墨,也不能为艺术语言而艺术语言,艺术语言最终是为了塑造艺术形象,而艺术意蕴也是蕴藏在艺术形象之中的,从这个意义上讲,没有艺术形象就没有艺术作品。艺术形象越鲜明、越典型,艺术作品就越有生命力;艺术家的使命之一,就是要塑造典型、鲜明、生动、优美的艺术形象。艺术形象不仅具有具体可感的形象性,而且要具有典型性和概括性,它把无比丰富的生活用典型化的手法概括到形象之中。(如图所示:吴作人  《金鱼图》)











  


In the works of art, artistic image is the core and key. In painting. Not only for the pen and ink (techniques) and traditional culture, no pen and ink culture, is not the language of art and artistic language, artistic language is to create the ultimate artistic image, and the meaning of art also contains the image of thearts, in this sense: there will be no image of art works of art meaning. The more vivid and typical the artistic image is, the more vitality of the works of art. One of the mission of the artist is to create a typical, distinct, vivid and beautiful artistic image. The image of art not only has a specific and sensitive image, but also has a typical and general, it is extremely rich life with the typical approach to the image. (as shown in the picture: Wu Zuoren "goldfish figure")

艺术形象又具有情感性和思想性。在艺术形象中,必须融进艺术家的喜怒爱憎,渗透进艺术家对生活的思考和评价。艺术形象还具有审美意丈,它凝聚着艺术家审美理想和审美情趣,闪耀着艺术创造的光辉,能给欣赏者以美的享受。作为美术家不但要追求以艺术语言为主的形式美,还要进一步追求以艺术形象为主的内容美,从艺术层次来讲,内容美比形式美更高更难。当然,内容美又脱离不开形式美,世上没有无形式的内容,一定的内容总是要通过一定的形式才能表现出来,形式美是内容美的必要条件和必要准备,而内容美又是形式美的目的和归宿。(如图所示:陆俨少《写意山水》)





  
The image of art is emotional and ideological. In the image of art, we must melt into the artist's joy, anger, love, hatred, infiltration into the artist's thinking and evaluation of life. The image of art also has the aesthetic meaning, which embodies the aesthetic ideal and aesthetic taste of the artist, shines the brilliance of artistic creation, and gives the enjoyment of beauty to the appreciation. As artists not only to the pursuit of formal beauty in art language, but also to further pursue the beauty of content to art image, from the artistic level, the content of beauty beauty of form more difficult. Of course, the beauty of content and inseparable from the beauty of form, there is no such form without content, some content is always shown by some form of order, the beauty of form is a necessary condition for the content of the United States and the necessary preparations, and the content and form of beauty beauty is the purpose and destination. (as shown in the "Freehand landscape": Lu yan shao)

艺术作品的第三个层次是艺术意蕴,这是艺术作品的最高层次,也是一个艺术家终生为之奋斗的目标:艺术意蕴是指艺术作品中蕴含着的深层的人生哲理、诗情画意或精神内涵。它是艺术家对艺术形象、艺术典型或意境的深刻领悟和创造的结果。(如图所示:王个簃《花鸟》)



The third level is the meaning of art works of art, this is the highest level of works of art, the artist is also a lifelong goal: the art of implication is in the works of art contains deep philosophy of life, poetic Chinese painting or spiritual connotation. It is the artist's deep understanding and creation of artistic image, artistic style or artistic conception. (as shown in Figure: Wang Ge Yi "Flower and bird painting")

黑格尔在《美学》中认为:“意蕴总是比直接显现的形象更为深远的一种东西。艺术作品应该具有意蕴”(见《美学》第一卷25页)。艺术意蕴也就是唐代诗论家司空图提出的“象外之象、”“景外之景”、“韵外之致”、“味外之旨”,也就是比艺术形象本身更加深广隽永的精神内涵,这种内涵蕴藏在艺术形象之内,只有凭借欣赏者的细心体察、玩味、感悟、领会,才能真正认识知押解例如:徐悲鸿在抗日战争期间画的《风雨鸡鸣》除了娴熟的笔墨和生动、准确、优美的艺术形象外,还有着深刻的艺术意蕴,  当时正值日寇铁蹄践踏神州大地、中华民族处在水深火热之中,徐悲鸿画了一个挺胸昂首,站在石头上引吭高鸣的大公鸡。来激发人们奋起抗日、还我江山的勇气和决心,表现了徐悲鸿强烈的爱国主丈情怀和民族的自信心。

艺术意蕴要求艺术家在有限中体现出无限,在偶然中蕴藏必然,在个别中包含普遍,艺术意蕴可以看作是内容与形式的统一、感性与理性的统一、客观与主观的统一、再现与表现的统一、具象与抽象的统一、形象与哲理的统一。

Hagel in the "Aesthetics" that: "the meaning of the image is always more direct than the appearance of a more profound thing. Works of art should have meaning "(see" Aesthetics "Volume 25). Artistic implication is the Tang Dynasty poetics proposed by Kongtu Si Image outside image, "" Scenery beyond scenery "," poems other, "taste than charm" other than Purpose ", which is more profound than artistic image and meaningful spiritual connotation, the connotation contained in the artistic image, only with the appreciation of the observe carefully, ponder, perception, understanding, in order to truly understand knowledge such as: Xu Beihong escorted during the Anti Japanese War painting" Fowls crow in the wind and rain say what others dare not to say. "in addition to the skillful painting and vivid, accurate and beautiful image of the art, and art with profound implications. At that time the Japanese cruel oppression of the Chinese nation, China in dire straits, Xu Beihong drew a straightens out, stood on a stone Turn to the public high Ming ming. Make a vigorous start to stimulate the people of up against Japan (Japanese War of aggression against China), I Jiangshan courage and determination, the performance of the Xu Beihong main Zhang strong patriotic sentiments and national self-confidence. Artistic implication artists in the limited requirements embodied in the unlimited, natural reserves in the accident, generally included in the individual, the meaning of art can be regarded as the content and form of unity, the unity of emotional and rational, objective and subjective unity, unity, and reappear performance of the concrete and abstract unity, the unity of image and philosophy.

艺术意蕴具有多义性和模糊性的特点,既是具体的确定的,又是不确定的。艺术意蕴可以看作不完全是由艺术形象体现出来的主题思想,它比主题思想更宽泛更深刻,它是一种更加形而上的东西,它是一种哲理和诗情,常常是只可意会,难以言传,只可接近它,无法穷尽它,即“此中有真意,欲辩已忘言”。艺术意蕴需要欣赏者用自己的全部心灵和才智去探究和领悟,是艺术作个层次的完美结合,才形成了传世名作。品具有不朽的艺术魅力的根本原因。具有远见卓识的艺术家,不能满足于艺术语言和艺术形象的探求和创造,还应更上一层楼,追求和创造具有深刻艺术意蕴的作品。



Artistic implication Has the characteristics of polysemy and ambiguity, both the identification of specific, is not sure. Artistic implication can be viewed as incomplete is reflected by the artistic image of the theme, it is broader than the theme more deeply, it is a more physical things, it is a kind of philosophical and poetic, is often It can be felt, It is difficult to explain in words, can only be close to it, explain It can not be exhaustive. these are True, "Among meaning, Want to argue Have forgotten to say". Artistic implication need to appreciate you with all Heart soul and intelligence to explore and understand, is art for the perfect combination of level, it formed a masterpiece. The root cause of the immortal artistic charm. The visionary artist, search can not be satisfied with the artistic language and artistic image and creation, also should strive for further improvement, and the pursuit of artistic creation has a profound implication of the works.
著名的美术史家郑午昌说过:“综观中西绘画,而寻其演进之次序,可分为四程,第一程漫涂,第二程形似,第三程工巧,第四程神化。”有一点需要指出:在艺术作品的层次构成中,任何一个作品都必须具有前两个层次,但又不能停留在前二个层次上(即艺术语言和艺术形象),而应该尽可能地追求第三个层次,即艺术意蕴。








作为最高层次的艺术意蕴,并不是每一件艺术作品都必须具有的,某些偏重于娱乐性、功利性或纪念性的作品,常常不存在这一层次,或者说,难以达到第三个层次,但是,从总体而言,正是这些艺术作品中的这三个层次具有相对独立的意义,其中,每一层次都有自身的审美价值,有的艺术作品或许只有其中某一层次比较突出,或者有独创的艺术语言,或者有感人的艺术形象,或者有而十人寻味的艺术意蕴。但是,真正优秀的艺术作品,总是在这三个方面都卓有成就,并且将这三个层次完美融合为一个整体,只有这样的作品,才能成为传世不朽的艺术精品。(凡高的画为什么开创了世界独幅绘画的最高售价凡高为什么成为后期印象派的三大巨匠之一 后期印象派摒弃了自然的形,摆脱了“正常”、“有逻辑”的羁缚,发展成张扬个性的现代艺术。凡高艺术作品的最大特色是对炽热情感的表现,他作品中的情感像“火山的爆发”一样,无比热烈奔放、震撼心灵,在这一点上,以前的画家,没有一个画家可以和他相比,正因为如此,他才永载史册,成为一代风范,也正因为如此,他的作品才开创了世界之最高售价。从许多成功画家的成功奥秘中不难得出一个结论:画画,不能只画真实,也不能停留在再现上,一定要画出自己的情感,这是画家成功的秘诀之一。)


  
The famous art historian Zheng Wuchang said: "in Chinese and Western painting, and the evolution of the search order, can be divided into four processes, the first process of diffuse coating, second shape, third fine, fourth apotheosis." It should be pointed out that: the level of works of art form, any works must have the first two levels, but can not remain at two levels (i.e., artistic language and artistic image), but should try to seek the third levels, namely the meaning of art. As the highest level of the meaning of art, and not every piece of art must have, some emphasis on entertainment and utilitarian or monumental works, often do not exist at this level, or that is difficult to reach the third level, but, generally speaking, is a relatively independent significance, this three levels of these works of art in which each level has its own esthetic value, some works of art, perhaps only one level is more prominent, or a unique artistic language, or moving image arts or artistic implication and ten ruminate. But the truly outstanding works of art, always in the three aspects are accomplished, and the three level perfect integration as a whole, only such works can become enduring art. (Van Gogh why created the world alone paintings become the highest price why postimpressionist Vincent Van Gogh three great masters of post Impressionist abandon the natural shape, get rid of the "normal" and "logical" trammels, developed into the individuality of modern art. The biggest feature is the hot Van Gogh works of art expression of emotion, emotion in his works like "the volcano", very enthusiastic and shocking, at this point, before the painter, not a painter can be compared with him, because of this, he was forever in the annals of history, become a generation of style, but also because of this, his work will create the highest price of the world. It is not difficult to draw a conclusion from the success of many successful painters: painting, not only painting the real, can not stay in the reproduction, it is necessary to draw their own emotions, which is one of the secrets of the artist's success.
待续
To be continued



顾绍骅_fPQeY 发表于 2017-7-20 08:57:41


七、   一点(今后的)思考

中国画艺术是东方文化宝库中的一颗璀灿明珠,古往今来,它一直在向前发展,犹如一条长河,虽有时狂暴湍急,有时滞流平缓,但从没发生断流,它一直在发展中 向前、向前,终于汇成今天这样一条浩浩荡荡的艺术大河,中国画的发展中凝聚了多少代画人探索奋斗的结晶,这需要每一位有志于中国画中求索的学人珍视的。

Seven, a little (future) thinking hope
Chinese art painting is the treasure house of Oriental Culture in a bright pearl, it has been in development from ancient to modern times, and like a long river, although sometimes violent rapids, sometimes stagnant gently, but never cutoff, it has been in the development of forward, forward, finally merged into today that a river of art go forward with great strength and vigour, development Chinese painting in the combination of the number of generations of painting people struggle to explore crystallization, which takes every interested in painting Chinese seeking people cherish.

中国画,无论什么时代,什么内容,山水,花鸟,人物,都离不开传统。因为离开传统就是“无根之花、无源之水”。 但是,中国画在“洋为中用,古为今用”过程中,越来越丧失民族特色。几年前,曾发生某画家的布幕国画被归类到油画展的事情,震惊了国画界……于是产生诸如“中国画末路穷途”、“笔墨等于零”等悲观论调。一位爱好中国画的以色列画家说,中国画应该是让我们喜欢中国画的人看起来还是中国画。传统的中国画以写意为主,擅长表现情感和意境,但在表现具体物象上较抽象。“把西方的造型观念融入到中国画中,提高中国画的表现范围和能力,是今天从事国画艺术的人所努力追求的。”中国美术协会中国画艺委会主任、花鸟画家郭怡宗认为,取长补短有利于中国画适应时代发展。但在发展过程中要防止中、西画界限越来越模糊。不少中国画与油画在构图、手法等方面有着惊人的相似,如果不被告知这是中国画,仅从模糊的幻灯片中判断,很自然地认为是油画。“这就是现今中国画面临的最大问题。”
   


Chinese painting, no matter what age, what content, landscapes, flowers and birds, characters, are inseparable from the traditional. Because leaving the tradition is "Flower without root, water without a source". However, the Chinese painting in the "make foreign serve China things adapt for Chinese, adapt ancient for [to] present-day use" process, the growing loss of national characteristics in. A few years ago, there was a painter of the screen painting is classified to the oil painting exhibition, shocked the Chinese painting circles...... The resulting pessimism such as "China painting driven into impasse", "pen and ink equals zero" and other an. A Chinese artist who likes Chinese painting says that Chinese painting should be the one that makes us like Chinese painting or Chinese painting. The traditional China painting with freehand brushwork mainly good at expressing emotion and mood, but in the performance of concrete than abstract images. "The western concept of shape into the Chinese painting, to improve the performance of Chinese painting and the ability to carry out the scope of today's people engaged in the art of Chinese painting is the pursuit of." Chinese Art Association Art Painting Chinese director, painter Guo Yizong that is conducive to learning from China paintings to the development of the times. But in the development process to prevent Chinese and Western painting boundaries increasingly blurred. Many Chinese paintings and oil paintings in the composition, techniques and other aspects have a striking similarity, if not informed that this is a Chinese painting, only from the judgment of the fuzzy slide, it is natural to think that oil painting. This is the biggest problem facing Chinese painting today."

美术评论家刘曦林不无忧虑地说。以中国画为代表的东方绘画和以油画为代表的西方绘画,都在各自的发展道路上创造了无数辉煌:但由于东西方在思维模式、哲学基础以及美学观念等方面的差异。 在绘画上的不同十分明显。例如,尽管在绘画之初,东西方都是用线条来描绘物象的,但在以后的发展中,西画的“块面”和中国画在线条的观念和使用上,有了巨大的差别: 西方绘画逐渐走上了科学写实的道路,而中国绘画则走上了写意的道路:线条在两个绘画体系内的地位和作用也有了显著的分野。著名学者彭吉象先生曾对中西绘画的差异作了如下的概括:“如果中国绘画尚意,那么西方绘画尚形;中国画重表现、重情感,西方绘画则重再现、重理性;中国绘画以线条作为主要造型手段,西方绘画则主要是由光和色来表现物象;中国绘画不受空间和时间的局限,西方绘画则严格遵守空间和时间的界限。总之,西方绘画注重再现与写实,同中国绘画注重表现与写意,形成鲜明差异”。
   

   
Art critic Liu Xilin said with great anxiety. To Chinese painting as the representative of the Oriental paintings and oil paintings as the representative of Western painting, all in their path of development has created countless brilliant, but because of differences in the mode of thinking, philosophical basis and aesthetic concepts, etc.. The difference in painting is very obvious. For example, although in the beginning of painting, East West lines are used to describe the images, but in the future development of Western painting of the "block face" concept and the use of China and painting in the lines, a huge difference: Western painting gradually embarked on the path of scientific realism, and Chinese painting on the freehand brushwork of the road: and two lines in the drawing system, the status of a significant distinction. Mr. Peng Jixiang was a famous scholar of Chinese and Western painting there are as follows: "if China Shangyi painting, Western painting is still shaped; Chinese drew heavy, heavy emotion, Western painting, reappearance, rational; China painting to modeling lines as the main means of Western painting is mainly composed of light and color show images; Chinese painting from the limitations of space and time, the boundaries of Western painting, strictly abide by the space and time. In a word, Western painting pays attention to representation and realism, and pays more attention to performance and freehand brushwork in Chinese painting".

中国画主要的特点是追求“诗情画意”——状物抒情与写实主义绘画的结合为基本创作风格,也是广大民众内心的审美追求,作者有感而发,受众由景入情,生动传神的细节刻画成为双方情感交流的信息载体。




(例如:顾绍骅创作的中国山水诗意画——《高士赴任图》
【赏析】高山仰止,瀑布飞泻;顶天立地,壁立千仞;初春时分,树木返青;朋友赴任,临别依依;……峻巍的山势造成动人心魄的效果,又仿佛从画面上“传出”飞瀑直下的轰鸣与寒风的掠过,交织在一起,使人感到自然造物之伟大。具有强烈的艺术感染力。
有诗为证:俯仰不能去,如逢旧友同。曾因春雪散,见在华山中。何处有明月,访君听远风。相将归未得,各占石岩东。{俯视、仰望都不能去,如同和老朋友相会。曾经因为“春雪”(各自的生活)分开,现在又相见在(这人生高大而美丽的)华山中。何处有明月?今天到访你这里,是因为你行善积德,好的名声传播,我才来此地拜访。相信将来“衣锦还乡”的时候,不会两手空空,因为你现在就占领着牢不可破的石岩东面(东面是方位第一。中国吉祥语有“紫气东来、东风浩荡、东床佳婿、东道主”等等)。}(唐朝·于邺的《友人亭松》诗意)此画采用以墨为主(墨分五色——焦、浓重、淡、清),“浅绛设色”、背面衬染的画法,因此有“不伤笔墨”古朴、高雅的等特点。136×34cm   纸本设色    2007年作)
   


China painting the main feature is the pursuit of "- like Lyric with a quality suggestive of poetry or painting" realism painting and the basic creative style, aesthetic pursuit, but also the majority of the people inside the feeling, the audience from the king into the affection, vivid details become the information carrier of both emotional exchange.
For example: Gu Shaohua's creation of Chinese Landscape Poetry -- "A man learning go to one's post picture"
[as] one stops looking up of at a peak, Waterfall Flying flow diarrhea stand upright on one's two; legs between heaven and earth of spirit stand bolt - indomitable, upright - a precipice At the beginning of; spring The trees turn green His friends go to one's; post hard, to depart/detach from each other;...... The Dangerously steep caused by the effect of passing thunder sound strike a deep chord, and wind seemed from the picture of "break out" of the waterfalls, interweave together, make people feel great natural creation. Have a strong artistic appeal.
There is poem to the point:Look down, Look up, can not go, like old friends and meet in. Because once the "spring snow" (their lives) from now (which meet in life is tall and beautiful) in Huashan. Where is the moon? Here you visit today, because you do good things, good reputation spread, I came here to visit. I believe the future "homecoming", not because you are left with nothing whatsoever, occupying the Shiyan East (East is too strong to break the first round. Chinese auspicious words have "The purple comes from the East (a propitious omen, The East blows mighty powe with, My eligible son-in-law, host," and so on) in. } (The Tang Dynasty, Yu Ye "friend Pavilion Pine" Poetry)
This painting with ink (colored ink, coke, heavy, light and clear), "Pale ochre fill in colours on a sketch", in the paper the lining into the back of the painting, it is "No occlusion pen and ink blot" simple and unsophisticated, elegant and in good taste etc..
136 x 34cm paper colors in 2007)


“状物妙在似与不似之间;太似则媚俗,不似则欺世。(描绘景物最巧妙是在于形象准确与形象模糊之间;形象太准确则似工匠做事,死板、没有发挥胸臆和抒情的余地、不浪漫,形象不准确,则是在欺骗世人。)”这是一代宗师白石老人的感悟,也是中华民族的审美意趣所在。



Describe the objects: the likeness and unlikeness; too much like kitsch, not like the world. (the picture is the most ingenious and accurate image of image blur between image; too accurate like craftsmen work, rigid, there is no Develop thoughts or will feelings deep in one's heart and the lyric room, not romantic, the image is not accurate, it is cheating.)" This is the master Qi Baishi of Perception and experience, but also the aesthetic interest of the Chinese nation.

中国画和油画的区别主要有以下几点;

(1)中国画出现的时间早于油画,仅就成型的绘画作品来说,中国画是在东晋时期(约公元304-589年)成型的,油画的成型至少要到中世纪的文艺复兴时期。

(2)中国画历史遥追数千年,为中华传统艺术之瑰宝。中国画最大的特点是:诗、书、画、印(四位一体的形式)作品构成以及画作本身就富含中华文化的底蕴,是别于西方绘画艺术的最大特点;中国画是集文学、艺术为一体的结晶、瑰宝;因此,油画是没得比的。
  


(3)中国画采取的是散点透视法,油画采取的是焦点透视法,所以中国画可以画出大范围的人物风景画(如清明上河图)而油画不能,油画能画出物体强烈的质感效果而中国画不能。
  




(4)中国画一般不采用重彩,颜色的种类较少,油画的色彩程度很重,使用的颜色也很多。

(5)中国画很重视装裱,油画对此基本忽略。
  


(6)中国画一般都结合私人的书法衿章与题字,而油画基本没有。
  


(7)中国画发展过程中,流派相对固定且分化不大,油画发展过程中流派众多且分歧也大。

The main difference between Chinese painting and oil painting is the following;
(1) Chinese painting predates the painting, forming the only paintings, Chinese painting is in the Eastern Jin Dynasty (304-589 AD) molding, painting the molding at least to the medieval renaissance.
(2) the history of Chinese painting is thousands of years old, which is the treasure of Chinese traditional art. The biggest feature is: China painting poetry, calligraphy, painting, seal the "four in one" works and a painting itself is rich in the heritage of Chinese culture, is a characteristic different from western painting art; Chinese painting is a collection of literature, art as one of the crystallization of gems; therefore, the painting is not ratio.
(3) Chinese painting is taken by the Scatter Perspective method, Western painting focus Perspective method is adopted, so Chinese painting can draw a large scale across the city, the landscape painting figures (such as Riverside Scene at Qingming Festival however Oil Painting cannot Like this); Western painting can draw however texture object strongly Chinese Painting cannot Like this.
(4) China paintings are generally not used color, color type less, the color degree of Western painting is very heavy, the use of the color of a lot.
(5) China painting attaches great importance to mounting, Western painting has basically ignored.
(6) China paintings are generally a combination of private and ZhangJin calligraphy inscriptions, and basically no Western painting.
(7) the development process of China painting, schools relatively fixed and not divide, in the development process of Western painting and many schools have big differences.

本应是东西方并行的两大画派——西方的油画、东方的中国画并驾齐驱;但如今的结果是:一个是“营养过剩”(油画),而另一个是严重的“营养缺乏”。这些是因为东西方所存在的文化背景、人文习惯、经济发达与否等诸多因素的影响所至;所以造成了国际社会对西方绘画——油画的宠爱倍致,对东方绘画——中国画的很大的漠视。而这种“漠视”会将导致一个我们十分不愿意看到的结果——“适者生存”。也许现在或不久的将来中国画会“变异”;它将“变异”为艺术价值低廉、没有笔墨、没有诗情画意、没有“三远”(没有中国画特性)的,在外界的压力下所派生出来的“畸形儿”——只有怪异的色彩、块面和特殊技法(材料)所表现的肌理效果;即所谓“创新的中国画”。 因此,我在此恳请:发达国家爱好艺术(特别是爱好东方艺术)的团体或朋友们,请你们为保护世界艺术宝库中的一棵绚丽夺目的奇葩——中国画,而进自己的一份力吧!
This should be the two major East West School of painting -- Western and Eastern Oil Painting racing together bridle to bridle Chinese painting;; but now is the result: a "nutritional excess" (Oil Painting), while the other is a serious "lack of nutrition". These are the things that exist because of cultural background, cultural habits, economic development or not, and many other factors caused by the international community; so the love of Western painting - Oil Painting times, the Oriental painting - China painting great indifference. This "ignore" we will lead to a very reluctant to see the results - "survival of the fittest". Maybe now or in the near future Chinese painting "variation"; it will "skin" for the artistic value is low, no ink, no poetic Chinese painting, not the "three far" (without the characteristics of China painting), in the outside world under the pressure of the derived "deformed" - only strange colors, block and special techniques (materials) by the performance of the texture effect; the so-called "innovation of China painting". Therefore, I urge this: developed countries interested in Art (especially Oriental Art loving) groups or friends and ask you for a color radiance dazzle to protect the treasure in the art world of the wonderful flowers - Chinese painting, contribute to a force of its own!

另外:要想让中国画真正能受到世界各国人民的喜爱,就必须把中国书画“学习、培训”班办到世界各国去;而今,随着中国文化的国际交流,中国文化体制的改革,中国文化艺术的瑰宝——中国书画将越来越受到世界各国人民的了解与喜爱,中国书画“学习、培训”班办到世界各国去的梦想即将成为现实;也只有当世界各国喜爱艺术的人们通过学习、了解并懂得欣赏中国书画作品艺术的“真谛”才能去喜爱、保护中国书画的健康发展;相信到那时中、西方绘画价格的差距才能有所改善。我们期盼那一天能早日到来!(全文完)

In addition to make Chinese painting really loved by people around the world, we must take Chinese painting "learning and training" classes around the world to do so; and now, with the development of international exchanges China culture, cultural system reform Chinese, China culture art treasures - Chinese calligraphy and painting will be more and more People all over the world understanding and love, China painting "learning and training" classes around the world to do so the dream will become reality; only when people around the world love art through learning, understanding and appreciation of calligraphy and painting art China "True meaning" to love and protect the healthy development of Chinese painting; then believe in Western painting, the price difference will be improved. We hope that the day will come soon!  (full text end)

注:本文参考的文献:1、《中国绘画史》潘天寿著 ;2、《中国书画鉴赏辞典》;3、《中国画色彩学》;4、《中国书画报》;5、《国画家》;6、《翰园书画报》;7、《中国书画艺术报》香港版。8、《中国画往何处去    许群 》;9、《论当代中国画的发展方向与画家的自我追求》等
顾绍骅作于2003年10月(2017年3月修改、增补图片)      
  


Note: This paper reference literature: 1, "Chinese painting history" by Pan Tianshou; 2, "China painting appreciation dictionary"; 3, "China painting color"; 4, "Chinese painting & Calligraphy"; 5, "artist of traditional Chinese painting"; 6, "Painting and Calligraphy Cultural talent newspaper"; 7, "Chinese painting & calligraphy art newspaper" Hongkong edition. 8, "Where does Chinese painting go author Xu Qun"; 9, "on the development direction of contemporary Chinese painting and the painter's self pursuit", etc.
Gu Shaohua made in October 2003 (revised in Supplementary picture March 2017)

作者介绍:顾绍骅  男 、一九六三年五月二十二日生 、 籍贯: 四川省巴县人(武汉市出生)、砚池书画社社长、湖北省书画研究会理事、台北故宫书画院客座教授与名誉院长、中国诗书画出版社副社长、中国书法国画研究会中国书画导师、“中国书画学会副主席、中国民族艺术家协会副会长、中国兰亭书画院副院长、世界教科文卫组织专家成员、“中国书画艺术百杰”。2013年4月1日,被聘为北京国艺粹宝书画院“终身名誉院长”,2013年5月10日,被中国现代文艺学会聘为“中国现代文艺学会艺委会艺术总监”,2013年5月,被中国文化学会、文化人物杂志社、中国航天文化艺术中心等组成的“中国艺术飞天奖评选委员会”授予“中国艺术飞天奖杰出贡献人物”荣誉称号。2013年5月,被中国国际艺术网聘为“执行副主席”,2014年四月,代表作品入选央视华人频道《华人艺术家》 ,2014年十月,代表作品入编《中华人民共和国年鉴》(2014卷),被中国人民艺术博物馆聘为“副馆长”,被世界文艺家联合会、英国皇家艺术研究院联合授予“世界文化名人、2014·中英艺术交流形象大使”的荣誉称号。2016年6月,“顾绍骅的诗情画意、顾氏破体书法”等,被中国文化信息协会主编的《追梦中国-科教文卫卷》收入;并推荐入编了“国家名片” 庆祝中国共产党成立95周年《时代先锋》纪念邮票;     7月被中国艺术院、政协书画院联合授予“十大殿堂级艺术家”荣誉,并被政协书画院聘为“名誉院长”,2017年3月,顾绍骅被授予“2017世界最美艺术大师”称号。

  
Author introduction: Gu Shaohua, male, born twenty-two May, 1963 from Sichuan province county (born in Wuhan city), Inkstone society of calligraphy and painting Hubei province president, director of painting and Calligraphy Research Association, guest professor of Taipei Academy of painting and calligraphy and the Imperial Palace honorary president, vice president of China poem calligraphy press, Chinese painting tutor Chinese calligraphy Chinese Painting Research Association. Vice chairman of Chinese art society, vice president of China National Artists Association, vice president of Lanting Pavilion China painting, expert member of UNESCO, "Chinese painting and calligraphy arts 100".In April 1, 2013, Beijing National art treasure Academy of painting and calligraphy was appointed as "honorary Dean, May 10, 2013, was hired as the" Chinese modern literary society Chinese modern literary society art art director ", May 2013, by heart China culture society, cultural figures magazine, China space culture and art composition" China art prize selection committee awarded the "flying" China the art of flying Award for outstanding contribution award of the honorary title. By May 2013, Chinese international art network hired as executive vice president, April 2014, on behalf of the Chinese channel of CCTV "selected works of Chinese artists"   , October 2014, representative works for the "People's Republic of China Yearbook" (2014 volumes), was Chinese people appointed deputy director of the art museum ", by the World Federation of literature and art, the royal the Art Research Institute jointly awarded the" world cultural celebrities, 2014 - British art exchange ambassador "honorary title. In June 2016, "Gu Shaohua poetic Chinese painting, Gu's broken body of calligraphy", is China Cultural Information Association editor of the "dream Chinese - Science Volume" income; and recommend the "national name card" for the celebration of the 95 anniversary of the establishment of the Communist Party of Chinese "pioneer era" commemorative stamps;    July by Chinese academy, the CPPCC painting and Calligraphy Institute jointly awarded the "ten hall artist" honor, and was appointed "honorary CPPCC painting academy dean, March 2017, Gu Shaohua was awarded the title of" 2017 of the world's most beautiful art master ".   Do the works of calligraphy and painting "poetic Chinese painting, division of ancient and not learn it; in pen and ink and the use of color has its own characteristics, Liu Dawei, Shen Peng, Shi Guoliang had been waiting for the teacher praise. Gu Shaohua's poetic painting Chinese website  

【备注】

[note]

本文用过的汉英词语:


the Chinese and English words:


托物言志:  Use the shape of the object to express ambition

胸臆: thoughts or feelings deep in one's heart

笔墨功夫:Pen and ink culture Kungfu

笔墨文化:pen and ink culture

相映生辉:Mutual confrontation glorify

题画诗:poems inscribed on paintings

诗画相得益彰:Poetry and Chinese painting complement each other complement each other

曲径通幽:The winding path leads to a secluded quiet place

笔墨境象:The cultural environment of Writing brush and ink

意在笔先:work out the plot before putting pen to paper

画尽意在:Chinese painting finished Significance in

外师造化:The study of nature

中得心源:Get your own knowledge

画外之意:Beyond painting Significance

情景交融:Is a fusion of feelings with the natural setting

借景抒情:take advantage of a scene to express one's emotion

毛笔:Writing brush

妙在似与不似之间:Be Subtle by Artistically Depicted to be Both Real and Unreal

卷舒取舍:Roll up and unfold,Admission and renunciation

曲尽蹈虚揖影之妙:Best song and dance, seize the wonderful virtual shadow

学无常师:A learner has no need of a constant teacher

举头忽看不似画:raise the head Suddenly look no like painting

借物抒情:Use images Express emotion

深山藏古寺:the Old Temple The mountains hide

增广贤文:To the general public Behave oneself Canonical essay

皴与擦:Chapped and wipe

存形莫善于画:Performance shape The best way is to draw

欲左先右:Towards the left before right

欲上先下:towards upper  First down

没骨画:painting without outline but with forms achieved by washes of ink and color

少施墨晕:Less application Ink Light color Fuzzy part

气足血旺:qi of middle-jiao energy adequate Blood flourishing

日照香炉生紫烟:Sunshine censer living purple smoke

朝辞白帝彩云间: Leave the white Emperor city in the morning when bright clouds surrounded

千里莺啼绿映红:Thousands of miles south of the Yangtze River, The peach trees were in bloom and the willows were turning green

窗含西岭千秋雪:From the window to see Xiling the snow.

苍山如海残阳如血:Deep green hills, endless like the sea;Sunset, the setting sun like blood

兰竹:Orchid and bamboo

各领风骚:each The leading position

水墨:Chinese Ink

笔墨精神:The spirit of pen and ink

道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物:Taoist school Give birth to a theory,One begets Two,Two begets Three,Three begets all things.

负阴抱阳:Negative yin-yang hold

艺术意蕴:Artistic implication

象外之象:Image outside image

景外之景:Scenery beyond scenery

韵外之致:poems  other than charm

味外之旨:beyond taste  purpose

心灵:Heart soul

无根之花:Flower without root

无源之水:water without a source

洋为中用:make foreign things serve China; adapt foreign things for Chinese

古为今用:adapt ancient forms for [to] present-day use

中国画末路穷途:China painting be driven into an impasse

高山仰止:as one stops looking up at a peak

瀑布飞泻:Waterfall Flying flow diarrhea

顶天立地: stand upright on one's two legs between heaven and earth -- of indomitable spirit;

临别依依:hard to depart/detach from each other

紫气东来:The purple air comes from the East -- a propitious omen

东风浩荡:The east wind blows with mighty powe

东床佳婿:My eligible son-in-law

感悟:Perception and experience

散点透视法:Scatter Perspective method

焦点透视法:focus Perspective method


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